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FRAMEWORK ACT ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Wholly Amended by Act No. 10893, Jul. 21, 2011

Amended by Act No. 10911, Jul. 25, 2011

Act No. 10977, Jul. 28, 2011

Act No. 11268, Feb. 1, 2012

Act No. 11603, Jan. 1, 2013

Act No. 11751, Apr. 5, 2013

Act No. 11913, Jul. 16, 2013

Act No. 11917, Jul. 16, 2013

Act No. 11980, Jul. 30, 2013

Act No. 13410, Jul. 20, 2015

Act No. 13534, Dec. 1, 2015

Act No. 13535, Dec. 1, 2015

Act No. 13550, Dec. 15, 2015

Act No. 13603, Dec. 22, 2015

Act No. 13879, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 13886, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 13894, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 13872, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 13873, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 13883, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 13889, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 14229, May 29, 2016

Act No. 14494, Dec. 27, 2016

Act No. 14532, Jan. 17, 2017

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS
 Article 1 (Purpose)
The purpose of this Act is to ensure that all citizens enjoy a healthy and pleasant life by preventing environmental pollution and environmental damage and by managing and preserving the environment in an appropriate and sustainable manner through defining the rights and duties of citizens and the obligations of the State with regard to environmental preservation and determining the fundamental matters for environmental policies.
 Article 2 (Basic Idea)
(1) The State, local governments, business entities and citizens shall ensure that the current generation of citizens can fully enjoy environmental benefits and future generations will continue to enjoy such benefits by endeavoring to maintain and create a better environment, by considering environmental preservation first while engaging in any activities utilizing the environment and by combining their efforts to prevent any environmental harms on the earth, in view of the fact that the creation of a delightful environment through a qualitative improvement and preservation of the environment and the maintenance of harmony and balance between human beings and the environment therethrough are indispensable elements for citizens’ health and enjoyment of a cultural life, for the maintenance of the territorial integrity and for the everlasting development of the nation. <Amended by Act No. 11268, Feb. 1, 2012>
(2) The State and local governments shall pay due regard to ensuring balanced use of the environment-related goods and services among regions, classes, and groups. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 11268, Feb. 1, 2012>
 Article 3 (Definitions)
The definitions of terms used in this Act shall be as follows: <Amended by Act No. 13894, Jan. 27, 2016>
1. The term “environment” means the natural environment and living environment;
2. The term “natural environment” means the natural conditions (including ecosystem and natural scenery) that include both all living things in the underground, on the earth’s surface (including the seas) and above the ground and inanimate matter surrounding them;
3. The term “living environment” means the environment related to the daily life of human beings, such as air, water, soil, waste, noise, vibration, malodor, sunshine and artificial lighting;
4. The term “environmental pollution” means air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, sea pollution, radioactive contamination, noise, vibration, malodor, sunshine obstruction, light pollution from artificial lighting and other similar pollution caused by industrial activities and other human activities, which are such conditions as inflict damage on human health or the environment;
5. The term “environmental damage” means the conditions that inflict serious damage on intrinsic functions of the natural environment by overhunting or overgathering wild animals or plants, destroying their habitats, disturbing the order of the ecosystem, impairing the natural scenery, washing away the topsoil, etc.;
6. The term “environmental preservation” means any activity undertaken to protect the environment from pollution and damage and to improve any polluted or damaged environment, as well as to maintain and create more delightful environmental conditions;
7. The term “environmental capacity” means the limit to which the environment can keep its quality by absorbing, purifying and restoring environmental pollution or environmental damage on its own within a certain area;
8. The term “environmental standards” means desirable environmental conditions or quality levels that the State should achieve and maintain to protect the health of citizens and create a delightful environment.
 Article 4 (Obligations of State and Local Governments)
(1) In order to prevent any environmental pollution and environmental damage and any potential harms caused thereby and to properly manage and preserve the environment, the State shall have the obligation to develop and execute an environmental preservation plan.
(2) Every local government shall have the obligation to develop and execute its own plan according to the environmental preservation plan of the State, taking into consideration the regional characteristics of its jurisdictional area.
(3) Where the State and a local government develop an environmental preservation plan under paragraph (1) and a local government plan under paragraph (2) to maintain sustainable conditions of the national land, it shall devise a measure to implement such plan on a collaborative basis with a national land plan under the Framework Act on the National Land. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13535, Dec. 1, 2015>
(4) Where it is necessary for the collaborative implementation of the environmental preservation plan and the national land plan under paragraph (3), the Minister of Environment may jointly determine matters, such as the scope of application and the method of and procedures for the collaborative implementation, with the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13535, Dec. 1, 2015>
 Article 5 (Obligations of Business Entities)
Any business entity shall voluntarily take measures required for preventing any environmental pollution and environmental damage that may result from his/her business activities and shall have the obligation to participate and cooperate in environmental preservation policies of the State or local governments.
 Article 6 (Rights and Duties of Citizens)
(1) All citizens shall have the right to live in a healthy and agreeable environment.
(2) All citizens shall cooperate in environmental preservation policies of the State and local governments.
(3) All citizens shall endeavor to reduce any environmental pollution and environmental damage that may result from their daily lives and to preserve the national land and natural environment.
 Article 7 (Principle of Liability of Persons Causing Pollution)
Any person who causes any environmental pollution or environmental damage due to his/her business or other activities shall, in principle, be liable to prevent the relevant pollution or damage and to recover and restore the polluted or damaged environment, as well as to bear expenses incurred in restoring the damage resulting from the environmental pollution or environmental damage.
 Article 8 (Prior Prevention of Environmental Pollution, etc.)
(1) The State and local governments shall exert preferential efforts for a prior preventive management of pollution through reducing pollutants and pollution sources of the environment at source and devise policies to promote voluntary efforts by business entities for the prevention of environmental pollution.
(2) Business entities shall endeavor to use raw materials with less environmental pollution and to improve their production processes at the entire phases of their business activities such as production, sale, distribution and destruction of products, and to reduce the generation of pollutants at source and to minimize any harmful impacts arising from the use and destruction of their products on the environment by means of saving resources and promoting recycling.
(3) The State, local governments and business entities shall endeavor to minimize any harmful impacts arising from their administrative plans and development projects on the environment with the aim of preventing such administrative plans and development projects from damaging the national land and natural environment.
 Article 9 (Comprehensive Consideration of Environment and Economy, etc.)
(1) The Government shall develop methods by which the environment and economy can be evaluated in a comprehensive manner and shall utilize those methods when it formulates different types of policies.
(2) The Government shall assist in minimizing any harmful impacts on the environment through consultations between industries, regions and businesses within the environmental capacity.
 Article 10 (Saving of Resources, etc. and Promotion of their Cyclical Use)
(1) The State and local governments shall develop policies necessary to economize on resources and energy and to promote the cyclical use of resources, including reuse and recycling of resources.
(2) Business entities shall cooperate with the State and local governments in implementing the policies under paragraph (1) when they conduct economic activities.
 Article 11 (Reporting)
(1) The Government shall submit each year to the National Assembly a report on the situation of promoting major environmental preservation policies.
(2) A report under paragraph (1) shall include the following:
1. Current status of environmental pollution and environmental damage;
2. Environmental trends at home and abroad;
3. Promotion status of environmental preservation policies;
4. Other important matters relating to environmental preservation.
(3) The Minister of Environment may request the head of a relevant central administrative agency to submit the data required for preparing a report under paragraph (1), and the head of the relevant central administrative agency shall comply with it unless there is a compelling reason not to do so.
CHAPTER II ESTABLISHMENT, ETC. OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION PLANS
SECTION 1 Environmental Standards
 Article 12 (Establishment of Environmental Standards)
(1) The State shall establish environmental standards in consideration of the impact, etc. on the ecosystem or human health and ensure that such standards maintain appropriateness according to changes in environmental conditions. <Amended by Act No. 13894, Jan. 27, 2016>
(2) The environmental standards shall be determined by Presidential Decree.
(3) The Special Metropolitan City, a Metropolitan City, Do or Special Self-Governing Province (hereinafter referred to as “City/ Do”) may, by ordinance of the relevant City/Do, establish any separate environmental standards that are more expanded and strengthened than the environmental standards under paragraph (1) (hereinafter referred to as “local environmental standards”) or modify any existing environmental standards for such purposes, if deemed necessary in view of the environmental characteristics of the relevant area.
(4) If the Special Metropolitan City Mayor, a Metropolitan City Mayor, Do Governor or Special Self-Governing Province Governor (hereinafter referred to as “Mayor/Do Governor”) establishes or modifies any local environmental standards under paragraph (3), he/she shall, without delay, report the fact to the Minister of Environment.
 Article 13 (Maintenance of Environmental Standards)
If the State or a local government enacts or amends any statute related to the environment, establishes any administrative plan, or executes any project, he/she shall ensure that the environmental standards under Article 12 are appropriately maintained, in consideration of the following:
1. Prevention of the environmental deterioration and elimination of the factors thereof;
2. Restoration to the original state of any area the environment of which is polluted;
3. Prevention of environmental pollution and environmental damage following the use of any new scientific technology;
4. Proper distribution of financial resources for the prevention of environmental pollution.
SECTION 2 Fundamental Policies
 Article 14 (Development, etc. of Comprehensive National Environmental Plan)
(1) The Minister of Environment shall develop a comprehensive plan to preserve the environment at the national level (hereinafter referred to as “comprehensive national environmental plan”), every 20 years, after consultation with the heads of relevant central administrative agencies. <Amended by Act No. 13535, Dec. 1, 2015>
(2) If the Minister of Environment intends to develop or modify a comprehensive national environmental plan, he/she shall prepare a draft therefor and finalize it subject to deliberation by the State Council after hearing opinions from citizens, related experts, etc. through a public hearing, etc.
(3) If it is intended to modify any minor matters prescribed by Presidential Decree with respect to a comprehensive national environmental plan, the procedure under paragraph (2) may be omitted.
 Article 15 (Contents of Comprehensive National Environmental Plan)
A comprehensive national environmental plan shall include the following: <Amended by Act No. 14494, Dec. 27, 2016>
1. Matters concerning the given conditions for environmental changes, such as population, industry, economy, and utilization of land and sea;
2. Predictions of the sources of environment pollution, environmental pollution level and pollutant discharge quantity, and prospects of changes in environmental quality due to environmental pollution and environmental damage;
3. Current status of and prospects for the environment;
4. Setting the targets of environmental preservation and the phased measures and project programs on the following matters to attain such targets:
(a) Matters concerning the preservation of the natural environment such as biological diversity, ecosystem and scenery;
(b) Matters concerning the preservation of the soil environment and groundwater quality;
(c) Matters concerning the preservation of the marine environment;
(d) Matters concerning the preservation of the national land environment;
(e) Matters concerning the preservation of the air environment;
(f) Matters concerning the preservation of water quality;
(g) Matters concerning the wider availability of waterworks and sewerage systems;
(h) Matters concerning the control and recycling of wastes;
(i) Matters concerning the control of toxic chemicals;
(j) Control of radioactive contaminants;
(k) Other matters concerning the management of the environment;
5. Computation of expenses required for executing projects, and methods to raise financial resources therefor;
6. Evaluation of the immediately preceding comprehensive plan;
7. Other matters incidental to those listed in subparagraphs 1 through 6.
 Article 16 (Implementation of Comprehensive National Environmental Plan)
(1) The Minister of Environment shall, without delay, notify the heads of relevant central administrative agencies of a comprehensive national environmental plan developed or modified under Article 14.
(2) The heads of relevant central administrative agencies shall take measures necessary to implement a comprehensive national environmental plan.
 Article 16-2 (Adjustment of Comprehensive National Environmental Plan)
The Minster of Environment shall re-examine the appropriateness of the comprehensive national environmental plan every five years, taking into consideration matters such as changes in environmental and social conditions, and shall adjust it if necessary.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13535, Dec. 1, 2015]
 Article 17 (Development, etc. of Mid-Term Comprehensive Plans for Environmental Preservation)
(1) The Minister of Environment shall develop a mid-term comprehensive plan for environmental preservation (hereinafter referred to as “mid-term plan”), every five years, for the comprehensive and systematic promotion of a comprehensive national environmental plan finalized under Article 14 (2).
(2) If the Minister of Environment intends to develop or modify a mid-term plan, he/she shall prepare a draft therefor and finalize it subject to consultation with the heads of relevant central administrative agencies after hearing opinions from citizens, related experts, etc. through a public hearing, etc.
(3) If it is intended to modify any minor matters prescribed by Presidential Decree with respect to a mid-term plan, the procedure under paragraph (2) may be omitted.
(4) The Minister of Environment shall notify the heads of relevant central administrative agencies and the competent Mayors/Do Governors of a mid-term plan developed or modified under paragraphs (1) through (3), and the heads of the relevant central administrative agencies and the competent Mayors/Do Governors so notified shall reflect it in the business plans under their jurisdiction.
(5) The Minister of Environment, the heads of relevant central administrative agencies, and Mayors/Do Governors shall develop and execute annual implementation plans for a mid-term plan developed or modified under paragraphs (1) through (3), as prescribed by Presidential Decree, and the heads of the relevant central administrative agencies and the Mayors/Do Governors shall submit the records of execution of the annual implementation plans every year to the Minister of Environment.
(6) Matters necessary for developing and executing mid-term plans and annual implementation plans therefor shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
 Article 18 (Development, etc. of City/Do Environmental Preservation Plans)
(1) A Mayor/Do Governor shall develop and implement an environmental preservation plan for the relevant City/Do (hereinafter referred to as “City/Do environmental plan”) according to the relevant comprehensive national environmental plan and mid-term plan, taking into consideration the regional characteristics of his/her jurisdictional area.
(2) If a Mayor/Do Governor intends to develop or modify a City/Do environmental plan of his/her own, he/she shall prepare a draft therefor and finalize it after hearing opinions from residents, related experts, etc. through a public hearing, etc.: Provided, That when he/she intends to modify any minor matters prescribed by Presidential Decree, the same shall not apply.
(3) If a Mayor/Do Governor develops or modifies a City/Do environmental plan of his/her own, he/she shall, without delay, report it to the Minister of Environment.
(4) If it is necessary for the management of the environment by affected zone provided in Article 39, the Minister of Environment may request the relevant Mayor/Do Governor to modify his/her City/Do environmental plan.
 Article 19 (Development, etc. of Si/Gun/Gu Environmental Preservation Plans)
(1) The head of a Si/Gun/Gu (referring to an autonomous Gu; hereinafter the same shall apply) shall develop and implement an environmental preservation plan for the relevant Si/Gun/Gu (hereinafter referred to as “Si/Gun/Gu environmental plan”) according to the comprehensive national environmental plan, mid-term plan, and City/Do environmental plan, taking into consideration the regional characteristics of his/her jurisdictional area.
(2) If the head of a Si/Gun/Gu intends to develop or modify a Si/Gun/Gu environmental plan under paragraph (1), he/she shall finalize the plan after consulting with the head of the relevant local environmental agency thereabout through the competent Mayor/Do Governor and report the fact to the Minister of Environment: Provided, That when he/she intends to modify any minor matters prescribed by Presidential Decree, consultation with the head of the relevant local environmental agency may be omitted.
(3) If it is necessary for the management of the environment by affected zone under Article 39, the head of a local environmental agency or a Mayor/Do Governor may request the head of the relevant Si/Gun/Gu to modify his/her Si/Gun/Gu environmental plan.
 Article 20 (Making Public Comprehensive National Environmental Plan, etc.)
The Minister of Environment, a Mayor/Do Governor, and the head of a Si/Gun/Gu shall make public through his/her agency’s website, etc. a comprehensive national environmental plan developed or modified under Article 14, a mid-term plan developed or modified under Article 17, a City/Do environmental plan developed or modified under Article 18, and a Si/Gun/Gu environmental plan developed or modified under Article 19.
 Article 21 (Environmental Consideration for Development Plans and Projects, etc.)
(1) Where the State or the head of a local government develops a plan for the utilization or development of land, it or he/she shall take into consideration the relevant comprehensive national environmental plan, City/Do environmental plan and Si/Gun/Gu environmental plan (hereinafter referred to as “comprehensive national environmental plan, etc.”) and the environmental capacity of the relevant area.
(2) Where the head of a relevant central administrative agency, a Mayor/Do Governor, or the head of a Si/Gun/Gu grants permission, etc. for any project involving the utilization or development of land, he/she shall take into consideration the relevant comprehensive national environmental plan, etc.
 Article 22 (Survey, Evaluation, etc. of Environmental Conditions)
(1) The State and local governments shall survey and evaluate the following on a regular basis:
1. Current state of the natural environment and living environment;
2. Actual state of environmental pollution and environmental damage;
3. Sources of environmental pollution and the main causes of environmental damage;
4. Changes in the quality of the environment;
5. Other matters needed to develop and implement a comprehensive national environmental plan, etc.
(2) The State and local governments shall maintain a system for research, monitoring, measurement, testing, and analysis to properly conduct the survey and evaluation referred to in paragraph (1).
(3) Matters necessary for the survey and evaluation referred to in paragraph (1) and the system of conducting research, monitoring, measurement, testing, and analysis referred to in paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
 Article 23 (Development and Dissemination of Environment-Friendly Planning Techniques, etc.)
(1) The Government may develop and disseminate environment-friendly planning techniques and standards for the utilization and development of land (hereinafter referred to as “environment-friendly planning techniques, etc.”) to ensure that administrative plans and development projects affecting the environment are designed, developed and implemented in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner.
(2) The Minister of Environment may develop and disseminate an environmental assessment map that indicates the current environmental state by grade after assessing the environmental value of the national land with the aim of efficiently preserving the environment of the national land and making use of the national land in an environment-friendly manner.
(3) The methods of developing environment-friendly planning techniques, etc. and environmental assessment maps, the details thereof, and other necessary matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
 Article 24 (Propagation of Environmental Information, etc.)
(1) The Minister of Environment shall endeavor to propagate knowledge and information on environmental preservation to all citizens and to make information on the environment easily accessible to citizens.
(2) The Minister of Environment may set up and operate an environmental information network to produce and propagate smoothly the knowledge and information on environmental preservation referred to in paragraph (1).
(3) The Minister of Environment may request the head of a relevant administrative agency to submit materials necessary to set up and operate an environmental information network. In such cases, the head of the relevant administrative agency shall comply with the request unless there is a compelling reason not to do so.
(4) If it is necessary to efficiently set up and operate an environmental information network under paragraph (2), the Minister of Environment may commission a specialized institution to survey the current state of the environment or entrust a specialized institution with the setup and operation of an environmental information network.
(5) The setup and operation of an environmental information network under paragraph (2), the commission of the survey on the current state of the environment and the entrustment of the setup and operation of an environmental information network under paragraph (4), and other necessary matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
 Article 25 (Education, etc. on Environmental Preservation)
The State and local governments shall develop and execute policies necessary to deepen citizens’ understanding of environmental preservation through education, publicity, etc. on environmental preservation and to inspire citizens to voluntarily participate in environmental preservation efforts and put them into practice in their daily lives.
 Article 26 (Encouragement of Environmental Preservation Activities by Civil Environmental Organizations, etc.)
(1) The State and local governments shall devise necessary policies, such as the provision of information, to encourage voluntary environmental preservation activities carried out by civil environmental organizations, etc.
(2) Where a civil environmental organization, etc. carries out activities designed to preserve the environment such as the purchase and control of any area the scenery and ecosystem of which are highly valued, the State and the relevant local government may provide such civil environmental organization, etc. with necessary administrative assistance.
 Article 27 (International Cooperation and Preservation of Global Environment)
The State and local governments shall interchange environmental information and technology and foster specialized human resources through international cooperation and shall actively participate in the international efforts, such as making mutual cooperation concerning the monitoring, observation and protection of the global environment, to preserve the global environment from any climate change, destruction of ozone layer, marine pollution, desertification, decrease of biological resources, etc.
 Article 28 (Promotion of Environmental Science and Technology)
The State and local governments shall devise policies necessary for promoting environmental science and technology, such as experiments, research, studies, technology development, and fostering of specialized human resources for environmental preservation.
 Article 29 (Installation and Management of Environmental Preservation Facilities)
The State and local governments shall take measures necessary for installing and managing public facilities for environmental preservation, such as the green zones to reduce environmental pollution, the facilities for treating waste water, sewage and wastes, the facilities for preventing noise, vibration and malodor, the facilities for protecting and restoring wild animals and plants and ecosystems, and the facilities for purifying polluted soil and groundwater.
 Article 30 (Regulation for Environmental Preservation, etc.)
(1) The Government shall keep necessary regulation, for the purpose of environmental preservation, over the discharge of substances causing the pollution of air, water, soil or sea, the generation of noise, vibration or malodor, the treatment of wastes, the obstruction of sunshine, and damage to the natural environment.
(2) With respect to a place of business that holds in two or more fields of operations facilities which discharge substances causing environmental pollution, the Minister of Environment or the head of the relevant local government may coordinate the visitation and inspections of those facilities in conducting them pursuant to related statutes.
(3) If the Minister of Environment or the head of a local government has made an administrative disposition against a business entity for a violation of any statute governing environmental preservation, he/she may disclose such fact: Provided, That this shall not apply where it is deemed that the disclosure of such fact is likely to infringe remarkably on the business entity’s legitimate interests because it contains the business entity’s trade secrets.
 Article 31 (Prior Notification of Permissible Emission Levels)
If the State sets or alters any permissible emission levels with respect to environmental pollution in accordance with the relevant statutes, it shall notify such levels in advance through relevant agencies’ websites, etc.
 Article 32 (Economic Incentives)
The Government shall devise incentives necessary for promoting the efficient utilization of resources and for inducing those who have given rise to environmental pollution to voluntarily reduce the discharge of pollutants.
 Article 33 (Control of Toxic Chemicals)
The Government shall devise policies to properly control toxic chemicals in order to prevent chemicals from causing any environmental pollution and damage to health.
 Article 34 (Prevention, etc. of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Substances)
(1) The Government shall take appropriate measures with regard to environmental pollution by radioactive substances, the prevention of such pollution, etc.
(2) The measures under paragraph (1) shall be governed by the Nuclear Safety Act and other relevant Acts.
 Article 35 (Evaluation, etc. of Harmful Impacts of Science and Technology)
Where it is deemed necessary to prevent any harmful impact arising from the development of science and technology on the ecosystem and human health, the Government shall take appropriate measures to analyze such harmful impact and evaluate its danger.
 Article 36 (Countermeasures against Environment-Caused Diseases)
The State and local governments shall find out how environmental pollution causes damage to citizens’ health and prepare countermeasures to address diseases caused by environmental pollution.
 Article 37 (Promotion of Environment-Friendliness in State Policies, etc.)
(1) The State and local governments shall formulate policies necessary to build an environment-friendly traffic system to minimize environmental pollution or environmental damage in the traffic sector.
(2) The State and local governments shall formulate policies necessary to use energy rationally and efficiently and to develop and disseminate environment-friendly energy so as to minimize environmental pollution or environmental damage arising from energy use.
(3) The State and local governments shall formulate policies necessary to develop environment-friendly agriculture, forestry and fisheries to minimize environmental pollution or environmental damage in the agricultural, forestry and fishery sectors.
 Article 38 (Establishment of Special Comprehensive Measures)
(1) The Minister of Environment may designate as a special measures area for environmental preservation an area where any environmental pollution, environmental damage or change in the natural ecosystem is remarkable or likely to become remarkable and an area where the environmental standards are often exceeded and publish the designation, in consultation with the head of the relevant central administrative agency and the competent Mayor/Do Governor, and devise special comprehensive measures for environmental preservation in the relevant area to have the competent Mayor/Do Governor implement them.
(2) The Minister of Environment may restrict the utilization of land and the installation of facilities in a special measures area, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, if it is particularly required for environmental improvement in the special measures area under paragraph (1).
 Article 39 (Management of Environment by Affected Zone)
(1) In order to grasp the situation of environmental pollution and to devise preventive measures thereagainst, the Minister of Environment shall manage the air pollution by affected zone, the water pollution by water-system zone, and the pollution of the ecosystem by affected zone.
(2) The head of a local government may manage the environment by affected zone according to circumstances of his/her jurisdictional area to effectively manage the air pollution, water pollution, or ecosystem of his/her jurisdictional area.
SECTION 3 Preservation of Natural Environment and Environmental Impact Assessment
 Article 40 (Preservation of Natural Environment)
The State and citizens shall endeavor to maintain and preserve the order and balance of nature, in view of the fact that the preservation of the natural environment is fundamental for human survival and living.
 Article 41 (Environmental Impact Assessment)
(1) The State shall conduct strategic environmental impact assessment, environmental impact assessment, and small-scale environmental impact assessment in order to enable any plan and development project that have impacts on the environment to be developed and implemented in an environmentally sustainable manner with the eventual aim of maintaining the appropriateness of the environmental standards and preserving the natural environment.
(2) Matters regarding the targets, procedures, methods, etc. for the strategic environmental impact assessment, environmental impact assessment and small-scale environmental impact assessment under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by other Acts.
SECTION 4 Mediation of Disputes and Relief of Damage
 Article 42 (Mediation of Disputes)
In preparation for any disputes caused by environmental pollution or environmental damage or other environment-related disputes, the State and local governments shall devise policies necessary to settle such disputes in a rapid and fair manner.
 Article 43 (Relief of Damage)
The State and local governments shall devise policies necessary to smoothly relieve any sufferings caused by environmental pollution or environmental damage.
 Article 44 (Absolute Liability for Sufferings by Environmental Pollution)
(1) If any suffering is caused by environmental pollution or environmental damage, the person who has caused the environmental pollution or environmental damage shall compensate for the suffering.
(2) If the persons who have caused environmental pollution or environmental damage are two or more, they shall compensate for the suffering under paragraph (1) jointly where it is impossible to find out which person has caused the suffering.
SECTION 5 Establishment of Special Account for Environmental Improvement
 Article 45 (Establishment, etc. of Special Account for Environmental Improvement)
(1) The Government shall establish a special account for environmental improvement (hereinafter referred to as the “account”) in order to increase investments in environmental improvement projects and to efficiently manage and operate such projects.
(2) The account shall be managed and operated by the Minister of Environment.
 Article 46 (Revenues of Account)
The revenues of the account shall be as follows: <Amended by Act No. 10977, Jul. 28, 2011; Act No. 11256, Feb. 1, 2012; Act No. 11751, Apr. 5, 2013; Act No. 11913, Jul. 16, 2013; Act No. 11980, Jul. 30, 2013; Act No. 13410, Jul. 20, 2015; Act No. 13603, Dec. 22, 2015; Act Nos. 13872 & 13873 & 13879 & 13883 & 13889, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 14229, May 29, 2016; Act No. 14532, Jan. 17, 2017>
1. Revenues from loans under the Introduction and Management of Public Loans Act;
2. Penalties for excess total pollutant load, additional charges, and penalty surcharges under Articles 8-5 and 8-6 of the Act on the Improvement of Water Quality and Support for Residents of the Han River Basin; penalties for excess total pollutant load, additional charges, and penalty surcharges under Articles 13 and 14 of the Act on Water Management and Resident Support in the Nakdong River Basin; penalties for excess total pollutant load, additional charges, and penalty surcharges under Articles 13 and 14 of the Act on Water Management and Resident Support in the Geum River Basin; and penalties for excess total pollutant load, additional charges, and penalty surcharges under Articles 13 and 14 of the Act on Water Management and Resident Support in the Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basins;
3. Emission dues and additional charges under Article 35 of the Clean Air Conservation Act, and penalty surcharges for release in excess of the total volume and additional charges under Article 20 of the Special Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in Seoul Metropolitan Area;
3-2. Inspection fees for confirmation of defects under Article 51 of the Clean Air Conservation Act and fees under subparagraph 2 of Article 86 of the same Act;
3-3. Cooperation charges for low-carbon motor vehicles under Article 76-8 of the Clean Air Conservation Act;
4. Charges for water quality improvement and additional charges under Article 31 of the Drinking Water Management Act;
5. Fees under Article 31 of the Noise and Vibration Control Act and expenses needed for the inspections under Article 33 of the same Act;
6. Effluent charges and additional charges under Article 41 of the Water Environment Conservation Act;
7. Charges for the public wastewater treatment facilities under Article 48-2 (1) and the latter part of Article 49-6 (1) of the Water Environment Conservation Act (limited to cases where the executor is the State and excluding cases where the relevant work is performed after being entrusted to any person referred to in any subparagraph of Article 48 (1) of the Water Quality and Aquatic Ecosystem Conservation Act) and additional charges;
7-2. Effluent charges and additional charges under Article 15 of the Act on the Integrated Control of Pollutant-Discharging Facilities and penalty surcharges under Article 23 of the same Act;
7-3. Fees for the use of public wastewater treatment facilities under Article 48-3 (1) and the latter part of Article 49-6 (1) of the Water Environment Conservation Act (limited to cases where the operator is the State, and excluding cases of entrusting installation or operation to any of the persons falling under any subparagraph of Article 48 (1) of the Water Environment Conservation Act) and additional surcharges;
8. Fees for the use of hunting grounds under Article 50 of the Wildlife Protection and Management Act;
9. Cooperation charges on the conservation of ecosystem under Article 46 of the Natural Environment Conservation Act and additional charges under Article 48 of the same Act;
9-2. Waste disposal charges and additional charges under Article 21 of the Framework Act on Resources Circulation;
10. Waste charges and additional charges under Article 12 of the Act on the Promotion of Saving and Recycling of Resources; recycling dues and additional charges under Article 19 of the same Act; and the principal and interest on loans provided as a part of assistance under Article 20 of the same Act;
11. Recycling charges for electrical and electronic equipment under Article 18, collection charges for electrical and electronic equipment under Article 18-2, and additional charges under Article 18-3, of the Act on Resource Circulation of Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Vehicles;
12. Guarantee for the performance of follow-up management under Article 51 of the Wastes Control Act and advance reserves under Article 52 of the same Act;
14. Environmental improvement charges and additional charges under Articles 9 and 20 of the Environment Improvement Cost Liability Act;
15. Principal and interest on loans under Article 11 of the Environment Improvement Cost Liability Act;
17. Principal and interest on loans under Article 47 (1) 14;
18. Money transferred from the general account under Article 48;
19. Borrowings under Article 49 (1) and (2);
20. Surplus of the account at closing under Article 51;
21. Money transferred or deposited from other special accounts or funds;
22. Proceeds transferred to the account under other Acts;
23. Proceeds from the sale or management of property belonging to the account;
24. Other proceeds accruing from the management and operation of environmental improvement projects.
 Article 47 (Expenditures from Account)
(1) Expenditures from the account shall be as follows: Provided, That financial resources consisting of the charges for water quality improvement and additional charges under subparagraph 4 of Article 46 shall be used only for the purpose of subparagraph 3; financial resources consisting of the charges for the installation of public wastewater treatment facilities and additional charges under subparagraph 7 of the same Article and fees for the use of public wastewater treatment facilities and additional charges under subparagraph 7-3 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 4; financial resources consisting of the cooperation charges on the conservation of ecosystem and additional charges under subparagraph 9 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 6; financial resources consisting of the waste disposal charges and additional charges under subparagraph 9-2 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 6-2; financial resources consisting of the waste charges, recycling dues, and additional charges under subparagraph 10 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 7; financial resources consisting of the recycling charges and additional charges under subparagraph 11 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 8; financial resources consisting of the guarantee for the performance of follow-up management and advance reserves under subparagraph 12 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 9; and financial resources consisting of the environmental improvement charges and additional charges under subparagraph 14 of the same Article, only for the purpose of subparagraph 12, respectively: <Amended by Act No. 10977, Jul. 28, 2011; Act No. 11751, Apr. 5, 2013; Act No. 11980, Jul. 30, 2013; Act No. 13879, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 14229, May 29, 2016; Act No. 14532, Jan. 17, 2017>
1. National environmental improvement projects;
2. Support for the environmental improvement projects of local governments;
2-2. Financial support under Article 76-7 of the Clean Air Conservation Act;
4. Expenditure to cover expenses needed for the installation or operation of public wastewater treatment facilities by the State under Article 48 (1) of the Water Quality and Aquatic Ecosystem Conservation Act;
5. The use under each subparagraph of Article 58 of the Wildlife Protection and Management Act;
9. The purposes of use under Article 53 of the Wastes Control Act;
10. The reimbursement of expenses incurred, by the State, in performing its responsibilities under Article 4 of the Act on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal and in conducting the vicarious execution under Article 21 of the same Act;
11. Contributions to reimburse the project expenses and operational expenses incurred by the Korea Environment Corporation established under the Korea Environment Corporation Act (hereinafter referred to as the “Korea Environment Corporation”);
14. Redemption of the principal and interest on loans, borrowings, and deposits under subparagraphs 1, 19, and 21 of Article 46;
15. Provision of loans needed by local governments for the installation of environmental infrastructure or needed in the private sector for the installation of environmental pollution prevention facilities or for the installation of and technology development for low-polluting product manufacturing facilities;
16. Support for the private sector regarding environmental policy research, technology development, publicity activities, investigations and research, and environment research institutes;
17. Reimbursement of expenses for collection of the account revenue;
18. Other expenses involved in managing the account.
(2) Matters regarding the eligible persons, and conditions of and procedures for loans provided pursuant to paragraph (1) 7, 12, and 15 shall be determined and publicly announced by the Minister of Environment. In such cases, the interest rates and terms for loans shall be determined by the Minister of Environment in consultation with the Minister of Strategy and Finance.
(3) Performance of affairs concerning the loans under paragraph (1) 7, 12 and 15 may be entrusted to the Korea Environment Corporation or the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute established under the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute Act. <Amended by Act No. 11751, Apr. 5, 2013; Act No. 11917, Jul. 16, 2013; Act No. 13534, Dec. 1, 2015>
 Article 48 (Transfer from General Account)
Transfers may be made from the general account to the account, as provided in the budget, so that the account can secure financial resources available for its expenditure.
 Article 49 (Borrowings)
(1) If the account is in need of financial resources available for its expenditure, long-term borrowings may be made for the account within the limits of the amount of money determined by a resolution of the National Assembly.
(2) If the account is temporarily in need of its working funds, temporary borrowings may be made for the account.
(3) The principal and interest on temporary borrowings under paragraph (2) shall be redeemed within the relevant fiscal year.
 Article 50 (Carrying Forward of Expenditure Budget)
The expenditure budget of the account not spent during the fiscal year for which such budget is earmarked may be carried forward to the next fiscal year, notwithstanding Article 48 of the National Finance Act.
 Article 51 (Disposal of Surplus)
Any surplus of the account at closing shall be included in the next year’s revenue.
 Article 52 (Reserve Funds)
The account may include a considerable sum of money in its expenditure budget as a reserve fund to cover any unexpected expenditures not included in the appropriated budget or any expenditures exceeding the appropriated budget.
 Article 53 (Direct Use of Excess Revenues)
(1) If there are any emission dues, discharge imposition amounts, penalty surcharges for release in excess of the total volume and additional charges under subparagraphs 3 and 6 of Article 46, any charges for water quality improvement and additional charges under subparagraph 4 of the same Article, any charges for the installation of public wastewater treatment facilities and additional charges under subparagraph 7 of the same Article, fees for the use of public wastewater treatment facilities and additional charges under subparagraph 7-3 of the same Article, and any environmental improvement charges and additional charges under subparagraph 14 of the same Article that exceed or are expected to exceed the revenue budget of the account (hereinafter referred to as “excess revenues”), the Minister of Environment may directly use such excess revenues to reimburse expenses for collection of the emission dues and discharge imposition amounts exceeding the expenditure budget of the account, charges for water quality improvement and additional charges under Article 31 (7) of the Drinking Water Management Act, expenses for collection of charges for water quality improvement, expenses for the installation or operation of public wastewater treatment facilities, and expenses for collection of environmental improvement charges, respectively. <Amended by Act No. 13410, Jul. 20, 2015; Act No. 13879, Jan. 27, 2016>
(2) If the Minister of Environment intends to use any excess revenues under paragraph (1), he/she shall obtain approval in advance from the Minister of Strategy and Finance.
(3) If the Minister of Environment intends to obtain approval under paragraph (2), he/she shall prepare a specification stating the reasons therefor and necessary amounts of money and submit it to the Minister of Strategy and Finance.
(4) If the Minister of Strategy and Finance approves the use of excess revenues under paragraph (2), he/she shall notify the Minister of Environment and the Board of Audit and Inspection of such fact.
CHAPTER III LEGISLATIVE AND FINANCIAL MEASURES
 Article 54 (Legislative Measures, etc.)
The State and local governments shall take legislative and financial measures and other administrative measures necessary for implementing the policies for environmental preservation.
 Article 55 (Financial Support, etc. to Local Governments)
(1) The State may reimburse from the national treasury all or some of the expenses required for environmental preservation projects of local governments.
(2) In order to enhance the capability of local governments to manage the environment and to promote environment-friendly local administration, the Minister of Environment may designate a local government as a model for environmental management and take measures necessary for supporting it.
 Article 56 (Support for Business Entities’ Environmental Management)
(1) The State and local governments may take any taxational measures and grant other financial supports necessary for supporting the installation and operation of facilities for the environmental preservation conducted by business entities.
(2) The State and local governments may grant administrative and financial supports necessary for the settlement and expansion of systems for voluntary environmental management under which business entities endeavor toward the voluntary management of the environment.
 Article 57 (Financial Support for Research, Studies and Technology Development)
The State and local governments may grant financial supports necessary for scientific research and studies and technology development related to environmental preservation.
CHAPTER IV ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY COMMITTEE
 Article 58 (Environmental Policy Committee)
(1) The Minister of Environment may establish a Central Environmental Policy Committee that deliberates and advise on the following matters: <Amended by Act No. 13603, Dec. 22, 2015>
1. Matters concerning the development and modification of any comprehensive national environmental plan under Article 14 and any mid-term plan under Article 17;
2. Matters concerning environmental standards, permissible emission levels for pollutants, water quality standards for discharged water, etc.;
3. Matters concerning the designation of a special measures area and the establishment of special comprehensive measures under Article 38;
4. Matters concerning basic plans for the management of livestock excreta under Article 5 of the Act on the Management and Use of Livestock Excreta and other basic policies for the disposal and recycling of livestock excreta;
5. Matters concerning basic plans for encouraging the purchase of green products under Article 4 of the Act on the Promotion of Purchase of Green Products and other basic policies to encourage the purchase of green products;
6. Matters concerning master plans for the control of persistent organic pollutants under Article 5 of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act and other basic policies to control persistent organic pollutants;
7. Matters concerning master plans for the development of environmental examination and inspection under Article 3 of the Environmental Testing and Inspection Act and other basic policies regarding the fields of environmental examination, inspection and environmental technology;
8. Matters concerning the establishment of the standards for the contents of hazardous substances, the improvement of materials and structure, mandatory recycling rates, etc. under Articles 9 (1), 10 (1) and (2), 12 (3), 16 (1) and 25 (1) of the Act on Resource Circulation of Electrical and Electronic Equipment and Vehicles;
8-2. Matters concerning best available techniques under Article 24 (1) of the Act on the Integrated Control of Pollutant-Discharging Facilities and the standard for best available techniques under paragraph (2) of the same Article;
9. Matters concerning the establishment and modification of any master plans and measures for environmental preservation by specific areas including environmental policy, natural environment, climate and air, water, water supply and sewerage, natural circulation and global environment, and other matters on which the chairperson of the Central Environmental Policy Committee or of any subcommittee thereof asks the Central Environmental Policy Committee to deliberate or advise.
(2) In order to deliberate and advise on any regional environmental policy, a City/Do environmental policy committee shall be set up under the jurisdiction of a Mayor/Do Governor, and a Si/Gun/Gu environmental policy committee may be set up under the jurisdiction of the head of a Si/Gun/Gu.
(3) The Central Environmental Policy Committee under paragraph (1) shall consist of not more than 200 members, including the chairperson thereof and not more than ten chairpersons of subcommittees.
(4) The Central Environmental Policy Committee under paragraph (3) shall be co-chaired by the Minister of Environment and a person elected from among such Committee members who are commissioned by the Minister of Environment from the private sector, and the chairpersons of subcommittees shall be persons who are nominated by the Minister of Environment by specific areas of environmental management including environmental policy, natural environment, climate and air, water, water supply and sewerage, and resource circulation.
(5) Matters necessary for the constitution and operation of the Central Environmental Policy Committee under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree, and other matters necessary for the constitution, operation, etc. of City/Do environmental policy committees and Si/Gun/Gu environmental policy committees under paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by ordinances of the relevant Cities/Dos and Sis/Guns/Gus.
 Article 59 (Environmental Preservation Association)
(1) For the purposes of any research, studies, technology development, education, publicity, ecosystem restoration, etc. regarding environmental preservation, an Environmental Preservation Association (hereinafter referred to as the “Association”) shall be established.
(2) The Association shall be a legal entity.
(3) Persons who are eligible for membership in the Association shall be those who have obtained permission for the installation of facilities discharging environmental pollutants and those who are prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(4) The expenses needed for activities of the Association shall be covered by membership fees, revenues from activities, etc., and the State and local governments may reimburse some of the expenses within the limits of the budget.
(5) The Association may, upon entrustment by the State, local governments, etc., conduct any activities under paragraph (1) and other activities specified in its articles of incorporation and approved by the Minister of Environment.
(6) If deemed that operations of the Association are in conflict with any statute or its articles of incorporation, the Minister of Environment may direct the Association to alter its articles of incorporation or business plan, or to replace its officers.
(7) The provisions of the Civil Act concerning incorporated associations shall apply mutatis mutandis to any matters concerning the Association that are not provided by this Act.
CHAPTER V SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
 Article 60 (Delegation and Entrustment of Authority)
(1) The authority of the Minister of Environment provided in this Act may be delegated in part to Mayors/Do Governors or to the heads of regional environmental agencies, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) The Minister of Environment may entrust the heads of relevant specialized institutions with some of his/her services provided in this Act, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
 Article 61 (Legal Fiction as Public Official in Application of Penalty Provisions)
Any person who is engaged in any services entrusted pursuant to Article 60 (2) shall be deemed a public official in application of Articles 129 through 132 of the Criminal Act.
ADDENDA
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Repealed Act)
Article 3 (General Transitional Measures)
Any designation, publication or other act done by or any act done in relation to an administrative agency under the previous provisions at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed any designation, publication or other act done by or any act done in relation to an administrative agency under this Act.
Article 4 (Transitional Measures concerning Special Accounts for Environmental Improvement)
Any special account for environmental improvement established pursuant to the Act on Special Accounts for Environmental Improvement repealed by the enforcement of this Act shall be deemed any special account for environmental improvement under this Act.
Article 4-2 (Transitional Measures concerning Transfer from General Account to Special Account for Environmental Improvement)
Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 48, the traffic, energy and environment tax shall be transferred in accordance with the following until December 31, 2015: <Amended by Act No. 11603, Jan. 1, 2013; Act No. 13550, Dec. 15, 2015>
1. The Government shall transfer an amount corresponding to 150/1000 of the traffic, energy and environment tax under the Traffic, Energy and Environment Tax Act (hereafter referred to as “amount transferred from the traffic, energy and environment tax” in this Article) every fiscal year from the general account to the special account for environmental improvement;
2. Any transfer may be made from the general account to the special account for environmental improvement, as provided in the budget excluding the amounts transferred from the traffic, energy and environment tax, so that the special account can secure financial resources available for its expenditure;
3. If there is any difference between the estimated amount and amount at closing with regard to amounts transferred from the traffic, energy and environment tax, such difference shall be adjusted by appropriating it in the budget for the next settlement year.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11268, Feb. 1, 2012]
Article 5 Omitted.
Article 6 (Relationship with Other Statutes)
At the time this Act enters into force, references in other statutes to the provisions of the previous Framework Act on Environmental Policy or to the Act on Special Accounts for Environmental Improvement or the provisions thereof, if this Act includes any provisions corresponding thereto, shall be deemed references to this Act or the corresponding provisions thereof in lieu of the previous provisions.
ADDENDA <Act No. 10977, Jul. 28, 2011>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 11 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11256, Feb. 1, 2012>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 11268, Feb. 1, 2012>
This Act shall enter into force on July 22, 2012.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11603, Jan. 1, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on January 1, 2013.
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 11751, Apr. 5, 2013>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of subparagraph 3-3 of Article 46 and subparagraph 2-2 of Article 47 (1) shall enter into force on January 1, 2015.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11913, Jul. 16, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on January 1, 2014. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11917, Jul. 16, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11980, Jul. 30, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13410, Jul. 20, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13534, Dec. 1, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 5 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 13535, Dec. 1, 2015>
This Act shall enter into force on January 1, 2016.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13550, Dec. 15, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on December 31, 2015.
Article 2 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13603, Dec. 22, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on January 1, 2017.
Articles 2 through 5 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13872, Jan. 27, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13873, Jan. 27, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13879, Jan. 27, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 12 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13883, Jan. 27, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13889, Jan. 27, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 13894, Jan. 27, 2016>
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Article 12 (1) shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14229, May 29, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on January 1, 2018.
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 14494, Dec. 27, 2016>
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14532, Jan. 17, 2017>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended parts of Acts, among the Acts amended pursuant to Article 6 of the Addenda, which were promulgated before this Decree enters into force but have yet to enter into force, shall enter into force on the date of enforcement of the respective Acts,
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.