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WEATHER ACT

Wholly Amended by Act No. 7804, Dec. 30, 2005

Amended by Act No. 8221, Jan. 3, 2007

Act No. 8852, Feb. 29, 2008

Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008

Act No. 9771, jun. 9, 2009

Act No. 10445, Mar. 9, 2011

Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011

Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013

Act No. 11713, Mar. 23, 2013

Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013

Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014

Act No. 12455, Mar. 18, 2014

Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014

Act No. 13162, Feb. 3, 2015

Act No. 13581, Dec. 22, 2015

Act No. 14079, Mar. 22, 2016

Act No. 14116, Mar. 29, 2016

Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017

Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017

Act No. 15344, Jan. 16, 2018

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS
 Article 1 (Purpose)
The purpose of this Act is to contribute to protecting life and property of citizens from meteorological disasters and climate change and enhancing public interests by providing for basic matters necessary for efficient national meteorological services and by promoting a sound development of meteorological services. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 2 (Definitions)
The terms used in this Act shall be defined as follows: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014; Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
1. The term "atmospheric phenomena" means various phenomena of the atmosphere;
2. The term "terrestrial phenomena" means various phenomena that occur on or under the earth's surface closely related to the weather;
2-2. Deleted; <by Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014>
3. The term "hydro-meteorological phenomena" means various phenomena that occur in inland rivers, lakes, or seas and are closely related to atmospheric or terrestrial phenomena;
3-2. Deleted; <by Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014>
4. The term "meteorological phenomena" means the following:
(a) Atmospheric phenomena;
(b) Terrestrial phenomena;
(c) Hydro-meteorological phenomena;
(d) Various phenomena occurring outside the atmosphere that affect atmospheric, terrestrial and hydro-meteorological phenomena;
4-2. The term “marine meteorological phenomena” means meteorological phenomena resulting from interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere over ocean;
4-3. The term “aeronautical meteorological phenomena” means meteorological phenomena that affect aircraft operations;
5. The term "weather observation" means the observation and measurement of meteorological phenomena by scientific methods;
6. The term "climate" means average conditions of meteorological phenomena in a specific region during a given period;
7. The term "climate change" means meteorological phenomena deviating from its average conditions over a considerable period of time due to human activities or natural causes;
8. The term "meteorological services" means the following services:
(a) Weather observations and forecasts;
(b) Establishment of countermeasures against climate change, surveys of impacts of climate change, climate change monitoring, and climate predictions;
(c) Deleted; <by Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014>
(d) Exchange, surveys, and analyses of, research on statistics and information on meteorological phenomena and climate and services incidental to such services;
9. The term "forecast" means publicizing predictions made based on the results of weather observations;
10. The term "severe weather alert" means a forecast calling attention to, or issuing a warning of an anticipated severe disaster due to any meteorological phenomena;
11. The term "meteorological instrument" means a machine, instrument, or device used for weather observations;
12. Deleted; <by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
13. The term "meteorological facilities" means observing facilities, forecasting facilities, and telecommunications facilities necessary for conducting meteorological services and other facilities incidental thereto, such as buildings, etc. for the installation and operation thereof;
14. The term "weather information system" means a systematically organized system of machines, programs, databases, etc. combined to collect, process, store, search, display, transmit, receive, and utilize domestic and overseas data on meteorological services.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 3 (Relationship to Other Acts)
(1) Except as otherwise provided for in other Acts, meteorological services shall be governed by this Act.
(2) Any other legislation or amendment to existing legislation regarding meteorological services shall be made fit for the purpose of this Act. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(3) Matters necessary for the standardization of weather observations shall be provided for in a separate Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 4 (Duties and Responsibilities of the State)
The State shall acknowledge that a stable provision of information on meteorological services is an essential element in stabilizing the lives of citizens and shall prepare and implement the following policies: <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
1. Matters concerning the maintenance of a system for producing and transmitting appropriate information on meteorological services;
2. Matters concerning cooperation between national agencies and local governments, etc. to ensure optimal conditions for weather observations;
3. Matters concerning the expansion, etc. of meteorological organizations, human resources, and facilities for preventing meteorological disasters;
4. Matters concerning the provision of meteorological services to create social and economic value by utilizing weather and climate information.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER II FORMULATION, ETC. OF MASTER PLANS FOR METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES
 Article 5 (Formulation, etc. of Master Plans for Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall formulate and implement a master plan for meteorological services (hereinafter referred to as "master plan") every five years, subject to consultation with heads of relevant central administrative agencies, in order to systematically and efficiently achieve the purposes of this Act, such as a sound development of meteorological services.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall, where he/she intends to formulate or revise a master plan, undergo the deliberations of the Presidential Advisory Council on Science and Technology under the Presidential Advisory Council on Science and Technology Act: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply to modification of insignificant matters prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 11713, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 15344, Jan. 16, 2018>
(3) A master plan shall include the following: <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
1. Matters concerning the basic goals and direction-setting for meteorological services;
2. Matters concerning the expansion of investment in meteorological service technologies;
3. Matters concerning the enhancement of meteorological services-related research and development and the facilitation of cooperative and converged research and development;
4. Matters concerning the dissemination of research findings on meteorological services and the facilitation of transfer and commercialization of technology;
5. Matters concerning the establishment and management of a weather information system and the joint use of information about meteorological services;
6. Matters concerning the enhancement of international cooperation and inter-Korean cooperation in meteorological services;
7. Matters concerning the enhancement of development of meteorological instrument technologies and standardization of observation methods;
8. Matters concerning facilitating convergence and utilization of weather and climate information and promoting related public relations;
9. Matters concerning support for climate change response;
10. Matters concerning education and human resources training for meteorological services;
11. Other matters necessary for developing meteorological services.
(4) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall, without delay, notify the heads of relevant central administrative agencies of the master plan confirmed.
(5) Matters necessary for the procedure for the formulation of a master plan and other relevant matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 6 (Formulation, etc. of Annual Action Plans)
(1) The heads of relevant central administrative agencies and the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall formulate and implement an annual action plan (hereinafter referred to as "action plan") in accordance with the master plan.
(2) When the head of a relevant central administrative agency formulates an action plan, he/she shall, in advance, consult with the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration.
(3) Matters necessary for the formulation, implementation, etc. of action plans shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER III OBSERVATION
 Article 7 (Weather Observations through Establishment of Observation Networks)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish weather observation networks in necessary places in order to produce information on meteorological phenomena. Matters necessary for establishing marine meteorological and aeronautical meteorological observation networks shall be separately prescribed by Article 7-2. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 7-2 (Establishment of Marine Meteorological and Aeronautical Meteorological Observation Networks and Other Relevant Matters)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish and operate marine meteorological observation networks, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, to support the safe operation of ships and marine activities.
(2) In order to support the safe operation of aircraft, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, establish and operate aeronautical meteorological observation networks in the airfields prescribed in subparagraph 21 of Article 2 of the Aviation Safety Act, the airports prescribed in subparagraph 22 of the same Article, or the flight information regions prescribed in subparagraph 11 of the same Article: Provided, That this shall not apply to any observation networks established in the air operations bases prescribed in subparagraph 4 of Article 2 of the Protection of Military Bases and Installations Act.
(3) The head of a central administrative agency other than the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, if he/she intends to establish an aeronautical meteorological observation network, shall consult in advance with the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration.
(4) Matters necessary for establishing marine meteorological and aeronautical meteorological observation networks; making observations through such networks; and conducting relevant activities, other than those provided for in paragraphs (1) through (3), shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 8 (Operation, etc. of Observation Networks of Weather Satellites)
(1) To support observation activities through observation networks prescribed in Article 7 or to produce information on climate surveillance, etc. prescribed in Article 21, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may establish and operate a meteorological satellite observation network and collect and utilize information obtained through observations. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(2) Matters necessary for establishing and operating the meteorological satellite observation network and collecting and utilizing information under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 9 (Requests for Specific Observation Data)
(1) When issuing forecasts and severe weather alerts for the safe navigation of ships or aircraft prescribed in Article 14, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, if necessary, request the owner of any of the following ships or aircraft (referring to a charterer, if a ship or aircraft is chartered for operation) to provide him/her with weather observation data: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; by Act No. 14116, Mar. 29, 2016>
1. Ships designated by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, subject to consultation with the Minister of Oceans and Fisheries, among ships equipped with radio equipment pursuant to Article 29 of the Ship Safety Act and meteorological instruments;
2. Aircraft prescribed by Presidential Decree, which are equipped with radio equipment prescribed in Article 51 of the Aviation Safety Act.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may reimburse all or some of the expenses incurred in providing observation data prescribed in paragraph (1) within budgetary limits.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 10 Deleted. <by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
 Article 11 (Announcements of Observation Results, etc.)
If the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration deems it necessary to make a prompt announcement of the results of weather observation and relevant information in order to enhance the safety and welfare of the public, he/she shall immediately make such announcement through broadcasting stations, newspapers, news agencies, and other appropriate news media (hereinafter referred to as "news media") or by other appropriate means. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER IV MANAGEMENT AND JOINT USE OF INFORMATION ON METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES
 Article 12 (Establishment, etc. of Systems for Management and Joint Use of Information on Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall establish and operate a weather information system (including incidental facilities) to facilitate the dissemination and use of information on meteorological services.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may request cooperation under paragraph (1) from national agencies, local governments, and persons specified by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, which produce and manage information on meteorological services.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER V FORECASTS AND SEVERE WEATHER ALERTS
 Article 13 (Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts for General Public)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue necessary weather forecasts and severe weather alerts for meteorological phenomena so that the general public can access such information.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may issue necessary forecasts concerning the impact of a disaster caused by meteorological phenomena on the life, body, property, and lives of citizens at a specific time or area (hereafter in this Article referred to as “meteorological impact”), in consultation with the head of a relevant central administrative agency, so that it can be available to the general public. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(3) In issuing forecasts or severe weather alerts for meteorological phenomena and meteorological impacts pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2), the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall inform the general public of the forecasts or severe weather alerts through news media or information and communications networks or by other appropriate means. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(4) Necessary matters concerning the types and details of forecasts and severe weather alerts under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 13-2 (Meteorological Drought Forecasts)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue necessary forecasts concerning meteorological drought (referring to the phenomenon that, in a specific area, the precipitation is less than the average precipitation and the dry period lasts for a certain period of time) so that it can be available to the general public.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 14 (Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts for Ships or Aircraft)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue forecasts and severe weather alerts necessary for the safe navigation of ships or aircraft.
(2) Necessary matters concerning the types and details of forecasts and severe weather alerts referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 14-2 (Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts about Impact of Physical Phenomena Occurring in Outer Space on Meteorological Phenomena, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue forecasts and severe weather alerts so that the general public can rely on information regarding the impact of physical phenomena occurring in outer space on meteorological phenomena, climate and meteorological satellites.
(2) Matters concerning the types and details of forecasts and severe weather alerts referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011]
 Article 15 (Notification of Severe Weather Alerts)
(1) When the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration issues or lifts a severe weather alert pursuant to Article 13 (1), 14 (1), or 14-2 (1), he/she shall immediately notify the following agencies of such fact: Provided, That only aviation-related agencies prescribed by Presidential Decree shall be notified of severe weather alerts for aviation: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. The Ministry of the Interior and Safety;
2. The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs;
3. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport;
4. The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries;
5. Other agencies prescribed by Presidential Decree that need to be notified of severe weather alerts to prevent disasters.
(2) An agency notified under paragraph (1) shall take necessary measures such as prompt announcement of the details notified.
(3) Matters concerning procedures for receiving severe weather alerts by agencies entitled to be notified under paragraph (1) and the designation of persons in charge shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 16 (Requests for Emergency Broadcasts on Meteorological Phenomena)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may request a broadcasting station designated as an organizer of disaster broadcasting services by the Minister of Science and ICT and the Korea Communications Commission pursuant to Article 40-2 of the Framework Act on Broadcasting Communications Development, to promptly broadcast weather forecasts in cases falling under the requirements prescribed by Presidential Decree, including cases where it is urgently necessary to issue a severe weather alert, etc. to citizens in order to prevent weather disasters. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 13581, Dec. 22, 2015; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) The organizer of disaster broadcasting services shall, upon receipt of a request prescribed in paragraph (1), comply with such request, except in extenuating circumstances.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 17 (Restrictions on Forecasts and Severe Weather Alerts)
No one other than the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may issue any forecast or severe weather alert: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply to any case where such act is done for national defense purposes and where a person who has obtained a weather forecast business registration pursuant to Article 6 of the Weather Industry Promotion Act (hereinafter referred to as "meteorological business entity") issues forecasts (excluding forecasts referred to in Article 14-2). <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009; Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011; Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 18 (Prohibition of Weather Control)
No one, other than the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, shall engage in any activity with a view to changing or controlling meteorological phenomena, such as rain, snow, hailstorm, and fog by manipulating weather conditions: Provided, That the foregoing shall not
apply to cases approved by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, for the prevention of weather disasters and for meteorological research.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 19 (Collection of Information on Meteorological Phenomena and Announcements of such Information through Telecommunications Systems)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall announce the following matters collected and integrated with respect to domestic and overseas meteorological phenomena through telecommunications systems so that domestic and overseas institutions providing meteorological services, ships, or aircraft can receive such information:
1. Results of weather observations;
2. Forecasts and severe weather alerts;
3. Other information on weather conditions.
(2) Necessary matters concerning areas affected by announcements under paragraph (1), methods thereof, etc. shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER VI CLIMATE
 Article 20 (Duty to Make Efforts to Conduct Climate Surveillance, etc.)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to carefully watch climate changes, improve the ability to conduct research on climate and to forecast weather, and to facilitate the utilization of information on climate.
 Article 21 (Climate Surveillance, Impact Assessment, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall carefully watch changes in the earth’s atmosphere and climate, and collect, analyze, and manage data on surveillance and observations of the atmosphere (referring to observations conducted for the surveillance of the atmosphere on the ozone layer in the stratosphere, concentrations of major greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and gaseous and particulate matter that affect the quality of air in each region; hereinafter the same shall apply), and publicly announce the results thereof on a regular basis.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall assess climate-related impacts and make predictions about future trends in climate change, including formulation of national standard climate change scenarios, in order to help prepare countermeasures against climate change. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
(3) Matters necessary for the collection, analysis, and management of data on surveillance and observations of the atmosphere and public announcement of the results thereof under paragraph (1), as well as for the impact assessments and the predictions about climate change trends under paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 21-2 (Certification of National Standard Climate Change Scenario)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall, in order to enhance the accuracy and availability of predictions about climate change trends, formulate and publicly notify the national standard scenarios of climate change based on the standards adopted by international organizations prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, after consultation with the heads of relevant central administrative agencies.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may certify the national standards for climate change scenarios according to the standards established under paragraph (1).
(3) If a national standard climate change scenario certified under paragraph (2) no longer meets the standards established under paragraph (1), the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may revoke the certification thereof: Provided, That where the certification under paragraph (2) is granted by fraud or other improper means, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall revoke such certification.
(4) Except as otherwise provided for in paragraphs (1) through (3), matters necessary for the certification of the national standard climate change scenarios, such as certification procedures, shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
 Article 22 (Issuance of Climate Forecasts)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall issue climate forecasts so that the general public can access such information.
(2) Necessary matters concerning the cycles and methods of issuance of climate forecasts under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 23 (Management of Climate Data and Utilization of Converged Weather Information)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall collect and manage climate data, produce various application data, and publicly announce statistics on such data on a regular basis.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall take measures necessary for the integrated management of climate data, such as building up a database, and endeavor to improve the quality of climate data, so that citizens can use such data in a easier and more convenient way. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
(3) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to produce and disseminate weather information created through convergence between meteorological services and other services (hereafter in this Article referred to as “converged weather information”) by utilizing the data pursuant to paragraph (1). <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(4) Matters necessary for the production, collection and management of climate data, applied data and converged weather information, other than those provided for in paragraphs (1) through (3), shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 24 (Establishment of Climate Advisory Organization)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may establish and operate an advisory organization in order to promote activities in a climate area and to systematically cope with climate-related issues. <Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008>
(2) Matters necessary for the organization and operation of the advisory organization under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008>
CHAPTER VII (Articles 25 through 30) Deleted.
CHAPTER VIII (Article 31) Deleted.
CHAPTER IX RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
 Article 32 (Implementation of Research and Development Projects concerning Meteorological Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall implement research and development projects concerning meteorological services (hereinafter referred to as "research and development projects") to concentrate on the development of technology for meteorological services, and may select research and development subjects each year and enter into an agreement with any of the following institutions and organizations to conduct research thereon under the agreement. In such cases, if an institution under subparagraph 4 has no representative authority, an agreement may be entered into with the representative of a legal entity to which the institution belongs: <Amended by Act No. 10445, Mar. 9, 2011; Act No. 14079, Mar. 22, 2016>
1. A national or public research institute;
3. A specific research institute under the Specific Research Institutes Support Act;
4. A research institute attached to a company or a department dedicated to research and development in a company, which retains researchers exclusively dedicated to research on meteorological services, among research institutes attached to an company and departments dedicated to research and development in a company recognized under Article 14-2 (1) of the Basic Research Promotion and Technology Development Support Act;
5. A college, industrial college, junior college, or technical college under the Higher Education Act;
6. A nonprofit corporation established to provide meteorological services pursuant to the Civil Act or any other Act.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may contribute funds to any institution or organization that conducts research and development projects under paragraph (1) to cover expenses incurred in conducting such research.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 32-2 (Collaborative Projects for Joint Use of Weather Information, etc.)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may implement collaborative projects for the joint use of human resources, facilities, equipment, materials, information, etc. with academic circles, research institutes, or industries.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may reimburse all or some of the expenses incurred in implementing collaborative projects under paragraph (1) within budgetary limits.
(3) The subject matter of collaborative projects referred to in paragraph (2), and schemes for implementation of such projects shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 33 (Promotion of International Cooperation)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall promote the following activities through cooperation with international organizations related to meteorological services and other countries, and actively participate in global efforts to advance technology in meteorological services: <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
1. Establishment of a cooperative entity in the Republic of Korea to provide international meteorological services under agreements between member states of international organizations;
2. Climate information services and climate change-related technology development by climate-related international cooperative entities under the umbrella of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation;
3. Exchange of information and technology on meteorological services;
4. Exchange of human resources;
5. Joint surveys and research.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to promote inter-Korean exchange and cooperation in meteorological services.
(3) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may bear all or some of the expenses incurred in promoting collaborative projects under paragraphs (1) and (2) within budgetary limits.
(4) Matters necessary for the subject matter of and schemes to promote international cooperation and inter-Korean cooperation under paragraphs (1) and (2) and other relevant matters shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER X DISSEMINATION AND EDUCATION OF KNOWLEDGE OF METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES
 Article 34 (Dissemination of Knowledge of Meteorological Phenomena and Climate)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall endeavor to widely disseminate and utilize knowledge of meteorological phenomena and climate for the lives of citizens in order to improve their understanding of meteorological services.
 Article 35 (Education for Workers Engaged in Meteorological Services)
(1) To improve understanding of meteorological services and standardize meteorological services, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may conduct education for the following persons:
1. Public officials who perform duties related to meteorological services;
2. Executive officers and employees of organizations related to meteorological services;
3. Meteorological business entities defined in subparagraph 10 of Article 2 of the Weather Industry Promotion Act;
4. The executive officers and employees of public institutions prescribed in the Act on the Management of Public Institutions who perform duties related to meteorological services, and the executive officers and employees of local government-directly operated enterprises, local government-invested public corporations, and local government public corporations prescribed in the Local Public Enterprises Act;
5. Persons engaged in the field related to meteorological services at observational authorities prescribed in Article 4 (1) of the Weather Observation Standardization Act.
(2) Any person falling under paragraph (1) 1 or 4, who performs the work of preventing and responding to meteorological disasters using weather information, shall receive professional education on meteorological disasters conducted by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration: Provided, That those who have completed meteorological disasters-related education in accordance with other statutes, such as the Framework Act on the Management of Disasters and Safety, may be exempt from the said professional education.
(3) The types of professional education prescribed in paragraph (2), the persons requiring such education, and other matters necessary for conducting such education, shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 35-2 (Education for Foreigners)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may provide education for foreigners determined by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment to promote international cooperation in meteorological services and to support meteorological services in developing countries.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 35-3 (Designation of Educational Institutions and Other Relevant Matters)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may designate educational institutions to perform the educational work prescribed in Articles 35 and 35-2.
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, within budgetary limits, reimburse the educational institutions designated in accordance with paragraph (1) for all or some of the expenses incurred in the course of performing the educational work.
(3) Matters necessary for the standards, procedures, etc. for designating educational institutions, other than those provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2), shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 35-4 (Revocation, etc. of Designation of Educational Institutions)
(1) If an educational institution designated under Article 35-3 (1) falls under any of the following cases, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall order such institution to take corrective measures within a given period not exceeding two months: <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
1. Where it has suspended its operations for a period exceeding the period prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment, without good cause;
2. Where it has violated the standards for designation of educational institutions under Article 35-3 (3);
3. Where it has violated this Act or any order issued under this Act.
(2) If an educational institution designated under Article 35-3 (1) falls under any of the following cases, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may revoke its designation, or order such institution to fully or partially suspend its services for a given period not exceeding six months: Provided, That if it falls under subparagraph 1, its designation shall be revoked: <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
1. Where it has obtained its designation by fraud or other improper means;
2. Where it has failed to comply with the orders to take corrective measures under paragraph (1) on at least three occasions a year;
3. Where it has used expenses subsidized under Article 35-3 (2) for other purposes;
4. Where it no longer meets the standards for designation under Article 35-3 (3).
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
 Article 35-5 (Recovery of Subsidies)
(1) Where an educational institution has used a subsidy granted under Article 35-3 (2) for other purposes, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall recover the full amount thereof. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(2) When a person obliged to return a subsidy under paragraph (1) fails to return the subsidy, it shall be collected in the same manner as delinquent national or local taxes are collected.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
 Article 35-6 (Establishment and Operation of Meteorological Science Museums)
(1) The State or a local government may establish and operate a meteorological science museum to disseminate knowledge of meteorological science and to promote publicity activities concerning meteorological services.
(2) Where the head of a local government establishes and operates a meteorological science museum pursuant to paragraph (1), the State may, within budgetary limits, reimburse all or some of the expenses involved.
(3) Matters necessary for establishing and operating meteorological science museums, other than those provided for in paragraphs (1) and (2), shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 35-7 (Establishment and Operation of Meteorological Museums)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may establish and operate a meteorological museum to disseminate knowledge, etc. of the history and culture of meteorological science and technology.
(2) Matters necessary for establishing and operating meteorological museums shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
CHAPTER XI SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
 Article 36 (Certification, etc. of Meteorological Phenomena)
(1) Any person who intends to obtain certification on or be provided with data about any weather phenomenon shall file an application with the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
(2) Necessary matters concerning procedures for granting certification or providing data about weather phenomena under paragraph (1) and fees therefor shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 36-2 (Provision, etc. of Weather Information)
(1) Where a person who intends to use weather information (excluding meteorological business entities prescribed in subparagraph 10 of Article 2 of the Weather Industry Promotion Act) files an application for provision of weather information, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall provide such information, except in extenuating circumstances. In such cases, the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may collect fees.
(2) Necessary matters concerning methods of providing weather information and collecting fees as prescribed in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment.
(3) Where weather information received under paragraph (1) is provided to a third person, the source of information shall be disclosed.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13162, Feb. 3, 2015]
 Article 37 (Collection, etc. of Charges for Use of Aviation Weather Information)
(1) The head of an agency established as a responsible administrative agency pursuant to Article 4 of the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Responsible Administrative Agencies and provides aviation meteorological services may collect charges for using aviation weather information from persons who use aviation weather information: Provided, That airplanes temporarily landing due to any unavoidable cause, such as a natural disaster, airplanes landing for diplomatic purposes, and other cases prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Environment may be exempt from such charges. <Amended by Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
(2) The head of an agency that undertakes aviation meteorological services may engage in any profit-making business related to aviation meteorological services, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) Matters necessary for the collection, etc. of charges for using aviation weather information under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 38 Deleted. <by Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014>
 Article 39 (Protection of Meteorological Facilities)
No one shall destroy any meteorological facility installed and managed by any of the following persons or degrade the utility of such a facility without good cause:
1. A national agency or local government;
2. A public institution prescribed by Presidential Decree;
3. A person to whom the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration entrusts meteorological services pursuant to Article 44.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 40 (Hearings)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall hold a hearing where he/she intends to revoke the designation of an educational institution or to issue an order to fully or partially suspend its services under Article 35-4 (2). <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013]
 Article 41 (Access, etc. to Land or other Property)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, if necessary to provide meteorological services, authorize public officials under his/her jurisdiction to enter land or waters owned or occupied by third persons (hereinafter referred to "land, etc.") or to use such land, etc. temporarily.
(2) Any person who intends to enter land, etc. of third persons or use such land temporarily pursuant to paragraph (1) shall obtain prior consent of the owners, occupants, or caretakers of such land, etc.: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply where the domicile or abode of such owner, occupant, or caretaker is unclear or where it is impossible to obtain consent due to any other unavoidable cause.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 42 (Compensation for Loss)
(1) The State shall, if any loss is incurred as a result of the access or temporary use of land, etc. under Article 41, compensate the affected party for such loss. In such cases, the Act on Acquisition of and Compensation for Land, etc. for Public Works Projects shall apply mutatis mutandis to such compensation.
(2) As for compensation for loss under paragraph (1), the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall enter into an agreement with the injured party in regard to compensation for loss under paragraph (1).
(3) If no agreement is reached or it is impracticable to reach an agreement prescribed in paragraph (2), an application for adjudication may be filed with the competent Land Tribunal under the Act on Acquisition of and Compensation for Land, etc. for Public Works Projects within one month.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 43 (Presentation of Identification)
A public official who performs his/her duties pursuant to Article 41 shall carry with him/her an identification indicating his/her authority and present it to interested parties. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 44 (Entrustment of Services)
(1) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may, if deemed necessary, entrust a national agency, local government, or person prescribed by Presidential Decree with some of the services specified in this Act. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(2) The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may lend meteorological instruments and other equipment as necessary for conducting services to a person to whom the services are entrusted pursuant to paragraph (1) free of charge, or reimburse all or some of the expenses incurred in providing such services within budgetary limits. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
(3) Matters necessary for the entrustment of services under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 45 (Entrustment of Extraordinary Services)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration may be entrusted with the following services and conduct such services, as prescribed by Presidential Decree within the extent that such services do not hinder him/her in the performance of his/her duties: <Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
1. Observations, surveys, and research on meteorological phenomena, climate, or matters closely related thereto;
2. Extraordinary forecasts of meteorological phenomena, climate, or matters closely related thereto and the guidance therefor;
3. Designing, production, testing, repair, or adjustment of meteorological instruments;
4. Development, investigation, and study of meteorological service technology or matters closely related thereto;
5. International cooperation, dissemination of knowledge, and education for meteorological services or matters closely related thereto.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 46 (Duty to Submit to Competent Standing Committee of National Assembly)
The Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration shall submit a report on the results of implementation of an annual action plan to the competent Standing Committee of the National Assembly during the first half of the following year.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 47 (Legal Fiction as Public Officials for Purposes of Applying Penalty Provisions)
Executive officers and employees of an educational institution under Article 35-3 shall be deemed public officials for purposes of applying Articles 129 through 132 of the Criminal Act. <Amended by Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009; Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
CHAPTER XII PENALTY PROVISIONS
 Article 48 (Penalty Provisions)
A person who issues a severe weather alert in violation of the main sentence of Article 17 shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than three years or by a fine not exceeding 30 million won. <Amended by Act No. 12455, Mar. 18, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 49 (Penalty Provisions)
A person who engages in any activity with a view to changing or controlling a meteorological phenomenon, in violation of the main sentence of Article 18, shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than one year or by a fine not exceeding ten million won.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017]
 Article 50 (Joint Penalty Provisions)
If the representative of a corporation, or an agent or employee of, or any other person employed, by a corporation or an individual commits an offense under Article 48 or 49 in connection with the business affairs of the corporation or individual, not only shall such offender be punished, but also the corporation or individual shall be punished by a fine prescribed in the relevant provisions: Provided, That the foregoing shall not apply where such corporation or individual has not been negligent in giving due attention and supervision concerning the relevant duties to prevent such offense.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
 Article 51 (Administrative Fines)
(1) A person who issues a weather forecast, in violation of the main sentence of Article 17 shall be punished by an administrative fine not exceeding one million won.
(2) A person who fails to disclose the source of the weather information he/she receives and provides such information to a third person, in violation of Article 36-2 (3) shall be punished by an administrative fine not exceeding five hundred thousand won. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13162, Feb. 3, 2015>
(3) Administrative fines under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be imposed and collected by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration as prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 13162, Feb. 3, 2015>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008]
ADDENDA
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Transitional Measures concerning Master Plans)
Any former master plan for meteorological technology established after deliberation by the National Science and Technology Council as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed a master plan under the amended provisions of Article 5 (1).
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Meteorological Business Entities)
Any person whose forecasting business is registered pursuant to former provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed a meteorological business entity registered pursuant to the amended provisions of Article 26.
Article 4 (Transitional Measures concerning Weather Information Support Institutions)
Weather information support institutions designated pursuant to former provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed weather information support institutions designated pursuant to the amended provisions of Article 31.
Article 5 (Transitional Measures concerning Administrative Dispositions, etc.)
Dispositions, reports, and other acts made or done in relation to an administrative agency pursuant to previous provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed dispositions, reports, and other acts made or done in relation to the administrative agency pursuant to this Act.
Article 6 Omitted.
Article 7 (Relationship to other Acts)
A citation to the Weather Service Act or any provision thereof by any other statute in force as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed a citation to this Act or the corresponding provision hereof in lieu of the former provision, if this Act includes such corresponding provision.
ADDENDA <Act No. 8221, Jan. 3, 2007>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force ten months after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 16 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 8852, Feb. 29, 2008>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 9309, Dec. 31, 2008>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the provision stipulating that the registration may be revoked if a person fails to file for registration of modified matters, in violation of the main sentence of Article 26 (2), in the amended provisions of subparagraph 4 of Article 28, shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation; and the amended provisions of Article 21 (2) and (3) shall enter into force six months after the date of their promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 9771, Jun. 9, 2009>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 8 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 10445, Mar. 9, 2011>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 11067, Sep. 30, 2011>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 8, 14-2 and 15 (1), Chapter VII (Articles 25 through 30) and the proviso to Article 37 (1) shall enter into force six months after the date of their promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
(1) This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
(2) Omitted.
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11713, Mar. 23, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11905, Jul. 16, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 21-2, 23, 35 (4), and 35-2 shall enter into force six months after the date of their promulgation.
Article 2 (Transitional Measures concerning Administrative Dispositions)
Where administrative dispositions are imposed for any violations committed before the amended provisions of Article 35-2 enter into force, the former provisions shall apply notwithstanding the said amended provisions.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12320, Jan. 21, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after its promulgation.
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 12455, Mar. 18, 2014>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That, among the Acts amended in accordance with Article 6 of the Addenda, amendments to Acts, which were promulgated before this Act enters into force but the enforcement dates of which have yet to arrive, shall enter into force on the enforcement date of the respective Acts.
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13162, Feb. 3, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13581, Dec. 22, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Article 2 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14079, Mar. 22, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14116, Mar. 29, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 55 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14786, Apr. 18, 2017>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability to Details of Master Plan)
The amended provisions of Article 5 (3) shall apply to master plans formulated after this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Establishment of Meteorological Science Museums)
Any meteorological science museum established by the Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration before this Act enters into force shall be deemed a meteorological science museum established pursuant to the amended provisions of Article 35-6 (1).
Article 4 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended portions of any Act which was amended pursuant to Article 5 of the Addenda to the Government Organization Act and promulgated before the Government Organization Act enters into force, but the enforcement date of which has not yet arrived, shall enter into force on the enforcement date of such Act.
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 15344, Jan. 16, 2018>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 4 Omitted.