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ROAD TRAFFIC ACT

Wholly Amended by Act No. 7545, May 31, 2005

Amended by Act No. 7666, Aug. 4, 2005

Act No. 7936, Apr. 28, 2006

Act No. 7969, Jul. 19, 2006

Act No. 8736, Dec. 21, 2007

Act No. 8845, Jan. 17, 2008

Act No. 8852, Feb. 29, 2008

Act No. 8976, Mar. 21, 2008

Act No. 9115, jun. 13, 2008

Act No. 9580, Apr. 1, 2009

Act No. 9845, Dec. 29, 2009

Act No. 9932, Jan. 18, 2010

Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010

Act No. 10790, jun. 8, 2011

Act No. 11298, Feb. 10, 2012

Act No. 11402, Mar. 21, 2012

Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013

Act No. 11780, May 22, 2013

Act No. 12045, Aug. 13, 2013

Act No. 12248, Jan. 14, 2014

Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014

Act No. 12345, Jan. 28, 2014

Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014

Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014

Act No. 13425, Jul. 24, 2015

Act No. 13426, Jul. 24, 2015

Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015

Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016

Act No. 14266, May 29, 2016

Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016

Act No. 14617, Mar. 21, 2017

Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017

Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017

Act No. 15364, Feb. 9, 2018

Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018

CHAPTER I GENERAL PROVISIONS
 Article 1 (Purpose)
The purpose of this Act is to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic by preventing and removing all dangers and obstacles to traffic on roads.
 Article 2 (Definitions)
The definitions of the terms used in this Act shall be as follows: <Amended by Act No. 11402, Mar. 21, 2012; Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14617, Mar. 21, 2017; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. The term "road" means any of the following:
(a) A road provided for in the Road Act;
(b) A toll road provided for in the Toll Road Act;
(c) Roads in agricultural and fishing villages provided for in the Act on the Maintenance and Improvement of Road Networks in Agricultural and Fishing Villages;
(d) An open area actually necessary to ensure safe and smooth movement of traffic of many unspecified persons, motor vehicles, and horses;
2. The term "exclusive road for motor vehicles" means a road on which only motor vehicles may move;
3. The term "expressway" means a road designated exclusively for motor vehicles to move along at high speed;
4. The term "roadway" means the area of a road over which all motor vehicles move along, demarcated by a line of curbstones (referring to a line of curbstones, etc. that define roadways from sidewalks; hereinafter the same shall apply), safety signs, or artificial structures similar thereto;
5. The term "median lane" means a line indicated with safety signs, such as yellow solid lines and yellow dotted lines, or facilities installed with medians or barriers, etc., in order to clearly separate the direction of passage of motor vehicles and horses: Provided, That where a reversible motor vehicle road is opened pursuant to the latter part of Article 14 (1), this refers to a yellow dotted line on the far left side of the direction of movement controlled by signal apparatus;
6. The term "lane" means the area of a roadway divided by the vehicle lines between which motor vehicles and horses move;
7. The term "vehicle line" means a line whose boundary points are indicated with safety signs in order to distinguish one lane from another;
7-2. The term “tram road” means a track or lane referred to in each subparagraph of Article 18-2 (1) of the Urban Railroad Act on which a tramway is laid, demarcated by safety signs or artificial structures;
8. The term "bicycle track" means a road specified under Article 3 of the Promotion of the Use of Bicycles Act, demarcated by safety signs, safety railings, or other artificial structures similar thereto for bicycle traffic;
9. The term "bicycle crosscut" means the area of a road marked with safety marking for bicycles to cross the road;
10. The term "sidewalk" means the area of a road demarcated by a line of curbstones, safety markings, or artificial structures similar thereto for pedestrian traffic (including baby carriages and wheelchairs to aid walking, prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety; hereinafter the same shall apply);
11. The term "roadside area" means the edge of a road undivided by a sidewalk and a roadway, but demarcated by safety signs, etc. in order to ensure pedestrian safety;
12. The term "crosswalk" means the part of a road, demarcated with safety signs for pedestrians to cross the road;
13. The term "intersection" means the area of a road intersected in the shape of a "+" or "T" or the juncture of at least two roads (in cases of a road divided by the sidewalk and the roadway, referring to the roadway);
14. The term "safety zone" means the area of a road indicated by safety markings and other artificial structures similar thereto in order to ensure the safety of pedestrians crossing the road as well as motor vehicles and horses passing through;
15. The term "signal apparatuses" means apparatuses operated manually or electrically to convey signals to proceed, stop, turn, exercise caution, etc. by means of letters, symbols, or lights in traffic on the road;
16. The term "safety signs" means signboards that convey caution, control, direction, etc. or symbols, letters, lines, etc. indicated on the surface of a road necessary for traffic safety;
17. The term "motor vehicles and horses" means any of the following motor vehicles and horses:
(a) The term "motor vehicle" means any of the following:
(i) Motor vehicles;
(ii) Construction machinery;
(iii) Motorcycles;
(iv) Bicycles;
(v) Other vehicles moving along the road by the power of humans or cattle, or other motor power: Provided, That anything that moves along railway tracks or on temporarily installed lines, baby carriages, and wheelchairs to aid walking prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety shall be excluded therefrom;
(b) The term "oxen and horses" means cattle used for traffic and transportation;
17-2. The term “tram” means a tram referred to in subparagraph 2 of Article 2 of the Urban Railroad Act which moves on a road, using tracks;
18. The term "motor vehicle" means any of the following vehicles powered by motor (any towed motor vehicle shall be deemed part of a motor vehicle) without using any railway or any temporarily installed line:
(a) Any of the following motor vehicles provided for in Article 3 of the Motor Vehicle Management Act: Provided, That any motorcycle shall be excluded therefrom:
(i) An automobile;
(ii) A bus;
(iii) A truck;
(iv) A special-purpose car;
(v) A two-wheeled vehicle;
(b) Construction machinery provided for in the proviso to Article 26 (1) of the Construction Machinery Management Act;
19. The term "motorcycle" means any of the following:
(a) A two-wheeled vehicle with displacement below 125cc displacement among two-wheeled vehicles provided for in Article 3 of the Motor Vehicle Management Act;
(b) A vehicle (excluding electronic bicycles under subparagraph 1-2 of Article 2 of the Promotion of the Use of Bicycles Act) equipped with a motor of less than 50cc displacement (where the vehicle is powered by electricity, less than 0.59kw of rated power);
20. The term "bicycles" means bicycles and electronic bicycles defined in subparagraph 1 and 1-2 of Article 2 of the Promotion of the Use of Bicycles Act;
21. The term "motor vehicles, etc." means motor vehicles and motorcycles;
22. The term "emergency motor vehicles" means any of the following motor vehicles, used for emergency purposes:
(a) Fire engines;
(b) Ambulances;
(c) Blood supplying motor vehicles;
(d) Other motor vehicles prescribed by Presidential Decree;
23. The term "school bus for children" means a motor vehicle used for transport, etc. of children to and from an establishment for education of children (referring to persons younger than 13 years old; hereinafter the same shall apply) among the following establishments, and a motor vehicle for passenger transport business operated for children as its passengers after obtaining a restricted license for the passenger transport business under Article 4 (3) of the Passenger Transport Service Act:
(a) Kindergartens provided for in the Early Childhood Education Act, elementary schools and special schools provided for in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act;
(b) Childcare centers provided for in the Infant Care Act;
(c) Private teaching institutes established pursuant to the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Private Teaching Institutes and Extracurricular Lessons;
(d) Sports facilities established pursuant to the Installation and Utilization of Sports Facilities Act;
24. The term "parking" means keeping any motor vehicle in a parked state because the motor vehicle awaits passengers, is being loaded with cargo, or is broken down, etc., or its driver is unable to immediately drive the motor vehicle because he/she has left the relevant motor vehicle;
25. The term "stop" means bringing any motor vehicle to a stationary state for up to five minutes, other than parking;
26. The term "driving" means using a motor vehicle or horse or tram on a road (including places, other than a road, in cases falling under Articles 44, 45, 54 (1), 148, 148-2, and subparagraph 10 of Article 156) according to its original purpose and use (including maneuvering it);
27. The term "novice driver" means a person for whom two years have yet to lapse from the date he/she obtains his/her driver's license (where he/she is subject to a disposition to revoke his/her driver's license before two years lapse from the date he/she has obtained his/her driver's license, this refers to the date he/she subsequently re-obtains his/her driver's license). In such cases, where anyone who only obtains a motorcycle driver's license obtains a driver's license, other than a motorcycle driver's license, it shall be deemed his/her first driver’s license;
28. The term "drive slowly" means driving a motor vehicle or tram at a slow speed that allows the driver to stop the motor vehicle or tram immediately;
29. The term "overtake" means that a driver passes beside another motor vehicle and moves ahead of it;
30. The term "temporary stop" means that the driver of a motor vehicle or tram brings the wheels of the motor vehicle or tram to a temporary but complete stop;
31. The term "exclusive pedestrian road" means a road indicated by safety signs or artificial structures similar thereto for exclusive use by pedestrians;
32. The term "driving school" means an establishment in which the knowledge and skills to drive motor vehicles are taught, other than any of the following establishments:
(a) An establishment built by any school for training its teachers, employees, and students pursuant to education-related statutes;
(b) An establishment built in the place of business, etc. for training its employees;
(c) An establishment built to conduct simulated driving practice using electronic equipment;
(d) An establishment recognized by the commissioner of a district police agency among establishments built by the heads of local governments, etc. for conducting driving education for physically handicapped persons;
(e) An establishment that conducts driving education without receiving any fee therefor;
(f) An establishment that conducts driving education in a place, other than on a road, in order to allow a person with a driver's license to have various driving experiences;
33. The term "exemplary driver" means a driver who has received merit points for accident-free or meritorious driving, or a person who has no record of causing any traffic accident while driving a commercial motor vehicle for at least two years pursuant to Article 146, and engages in volunteer activities for traffic safety after being selected as determined by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 3 (Installation and Management of Signal Apparatuses, etc.)
(1) When it is deemed necessary to prevent dangers and to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic on the road, the Special Metropolitan City Mayor, the Metropolitan City Mayor, the Governor of a Special Self-governing Province or the head of a Si/Gun (excluding the head of a Gun of a Metropolitan City; hereinafter referred to as "Mayor, etc.") shall install and manage signal apparatuses and safety signs (hereinafter referred to as "traffic safety facilities"): Provided, That in cases of toll roads provided for in Article 6 of the Toll Road Act, road managers shall install and manage traffic safety facilities upon receiving instructions of the Mayor, etc.
(2) A Do may fully or partially subsidize the costs involved for the head of a Si/Gun to install and manage traffic safety facilities pursuant to paragraph (1).
(3) Where it is necessary to remove traffic safety facilities installed on a road or to restore them to their original state for reasons prescribed by Presidential Decree, the Mayor, etc. may require anyone who caused such reasons to fully or partially bear the costs necessary to perform the work therefor.
(4) Necessary matters concerning standards for bearing and refunding the costs referred to in paragraph (3) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(5) When the person who is liable to fully or partially pay the costs pursuant to paragraph (3) fails to pay them during the designated period, the Mayor, etc. shall collect the unpaid costs according to the precedents for dispositions taken to collect local taxes in arrears.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 4 (Kinds, etc. of Traffic Safety Facilities)
The kinds of traffic safety facilities, methods of manufacturing traffic safety facilities, places where traffic safety facilities are to be installed, and other matters necessary for traffic safety facilities, shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 4-2 (Installation and Administration of Unmanned Traffic Regulation Equipment)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency, the chief of a police station, or a Mayor, etc. may install and administer unmanned traffic regulation equipment to record and evidence facts violating the Act.
(2) The provisions of Article 3 (3) through (5) shall apply mutatis mutandis to removal of unmanned traffic regulation equipment or restoration to its original state, etc. In such cases, "traffic safety facilities" shall be construed as "unmanned traffic regulation equipment".
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 5 (Obligations to Observe Signals and Instructions)
(1) Pedestrians who walk roads, drivers of motor vehicles or trams, and riders of horses that move along roads shall observe signals and instructions conveyed and given by traffic safety facilities and any of the following persons: <Amended by Act No. 13425, Jul. 24, 2015; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. State police officers who direct traffic (including conscripted police officers; hereinafter the same shall apply) and the autonomous police officers of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (hereinafter referred to as "autonomous police officers");
2. Persons who assist the State or autonomous police officers (hereinafter referred to as "police officers") prescribed by Presidential Decree (hereinafter referred to as "police assistants").
(2) Where signals and instructions conveyed by traffic safety facilities referred to in paragraph (1) are different from those given by State police officers, autonomous police officers, or police assistants (hereinafter referred to as "police officers, etc.") who direct traffic, pedestrians who walk the road, drivers of motor vehicles or trams, and riders of horses that pass along the road shall follow such signals and directions given by police officers, etc. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 5-2 (Exemplary Drivers Association)
For the purposes of promoting mutual cooperation among exemplary drivers and performing efficient voluntary activities for traffic safety, the Exemplary Drivers Association may be established.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11402, Mar. 21, 2012]
 Article 5-3 (Assistance, etc. to Exemplary Drivers)
(1) The State may assist exemplary drivers with uniforms and equipment necessary for directing traffic, etc., within budgetary limits, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) The State may subscribe to insurance to guarantee compensation for the injury or death of any exemplary driver caused in the course of directing traffic, etc.
(3) A local government may grant a subsidy necessary for services performed by the Exemplary Drivers Association established under Article 5-2, within budgetary limits. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 11402, Mar. 21, 2012]
 Article 6 (Prohibition against and Restrictions on Traffic)
(1) When deemed necessary to prevent any danger on the road and to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic on the road, the commissioner of a district police agency may prohibit or restrict the traffic of pedestrians, motor vehicles and horses, or trams by designating a section. In such cases, the commissioner of a district police agency shall notify the road management agency in charge of the road on which the traffic of pedestrians, motor vehicles and horses, or trams is prohibited or restricted of such fact. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) When deemed necessary to prevent any danger on the road and to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic on the road, the chief of a police station may first prohibit or restrict the traffic of pedestrians, motor vehicles and horses, or trams, and then consult with the road manager about the objects and section subject to the prohibition or restrictions and the period during which the prohibition or restrictions are applied. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) When the commissioner of a district police agency or the chief of a police station intends to impose the prohibition or restrictions referred to in paragraph (1) or (2), he/she shall publish the fact of his/her intentions, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) When deemed necessary to urgently prevent any danger on the road because of damaged road, or outbreak of fire and other circumstances, police officers may temporarily prohibit or restrict the traffic of pedestrians, motor vehicles and horses, or trams within necessary limits. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 7 (Measures to Relieve Traffic Congestion)
When the traffic build-up of pedestrians, motors vehicles and horses, or trams is evidently likely to cause traffic congestion, police officers may take necessary measures to relax such traffic congestion. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER II WAYS OF PEDESTRIANS TO WALK ROADS
 Article 8 (Pedestrian Traffic)
(1) On a road that is divided into a sidewalk and a roadway, pedestrians shall always walk the sidewalk: Provided, That the same shall not apply to cases where pedestrians cross the roadway or such usage of a sidewalk is prohibited on the ground of any road work, etc. or other case of inevitability.
(2) On a road that is not divided into a sidewalk and a roadway, pedestrians shall walk on the fringe of the road in the direction opposite to horses and vehicles or the side of the road: Provided, That where the direction of the road is one-way, pedestrians may walk without facing opposite to horses and vehicles.
(3) In principle, pedestrians shall keep right on sidewalks.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 9 (Movement of Processions, etc.)
(1) Processions of students and other people or processions prescribed by Presidential Decree as being likely to impede pedestrian traffic (hereinafter referred to as "procession, etc.") may pass along the roadway, notwithstanding the main sentence of Article 8 (1). In such cases, the procession, etc. shall pass along the right-hand side of the roadway.
(2) When marching along a street during any socially important event, a procession, etc. may pass along the center of the road.
(3) When deemed necessary to prevent any danger on the road and to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic on the road, police officers may designate a section, order the procession, etc. to pass along the right-hand side of the road or the roadway (on a roadway with a bicycle track, this refers to the right-hand side of the roadway other than the bicycle track) in such section and take other necessary measures.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 10 (Crossing Roads)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency may open any crosswalk to ensure the safety of pedestrians crossing the road according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) Pedestrians shall cross a crosswalk referred to in paragraph (1), underpass, overpass, and other road-crossing facilities installed in the road: Provided, That in cases of physically handicapped persons unable to use road-crossing facilities, such as underpasses and overpasses, they may cross the road without using road-crossing facilities in a manner that crossing the road does not impede other traffic.
(3) Pedestrians shall cross the road by using the shortest distance, in which crosswalks referred to in paragraph (1) are not installed.
(4) No pedestrian shall cross the road just in front, or to the rear, of any motor vehicle or tram: Provided, That the same shall not apply where they cross the road over the crosswalk, or they cross the road according to signals or instructions sent or given by signal apparatuses or police officers, etc. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(5) No pedestrian shall cross the area of a road where crossing is prohibited by safety signals, etc.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 11 (Protection of Children, etc.)
(1) No caregiver of children shall allow any child in his/her care to play on a road where traffic movement is frequent, and no caregiver of infants (referring to children younger than six years old; hereinafter the same shall apply) shall allow any infant in his/her care to walk alone on the road where the traffic movement is frequent. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(2) A caregiver of a blind person (including persons corresponding thereto; hereinafter the same shall apply) shall make the blind person carry a white cane when he/she walks on the road or be accompanied by a dog prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety as a guide (hereinafter referred to as "guide dog for persons with disabilities"), or shall take other necessary measures. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) When a child rides a bicycle on the road or rides a dangerous mobile play apparatus prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, a caregiver of the child shall make the child wear life protection outfits prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety in order to ensure his/her safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) When a physically handicapped person requests for help or when deemed necessary to help them when they walk on or cross the road, police officers shall take necessary measures to ensure their safe passage along the road or their safe thoroughfare.
(5) When police officers find any of the following persons, they shall take appropriate measures to ensure such person's safety: <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
1. A child playing on a road on which traffic movement is frequent;
2. An infant walking on the road without their caregivers;
3. A blind person walking without necessary measures, such as holding a white cane or being accompanied by a guide dog for persons with disabilities;
4. A senior citizen (referring to persons aged 65 years and older; hereinafter the same shall apply) who finds it difficult to walk on the crosswalk or the road on which traffic movement is frequent.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 12 (Designation and Management of Protection Areas for Children)
(1) When deemed necessary to protect children from the danger of traffic accidents, a Mayor, etc. may restrict the driving speed of motor vehicles, etc. and trams not more than 30 kilometers an hour after designating certain sections as protection areas for children among roads around any of the following establishments: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 13426, Jul. 24, 2015; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Kindergartens provided for in Article 2 of the Early Childhood Education Act, elementary schools or special schools provided for in Articles 38 and 55 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act;
2. Childcare centers designated by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, among those provided for in Article 10 of the Infant Care Act;
3. Private teaching institutes prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, among those defined in Article 2 of the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Private Teaching Institutes and Extracurricular Lessons;
4. Schools which have the course of study of a kindergarten or an elementary school, among foreigners' schools or alternative schools provided for in Article 60-2 or 60-3 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, international schools provided for in Article 223 of the Special Act on the Establishment of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province and the Development of Free International City, and foreign educational institutions defined in subparagraph 2 of Article 2 of the Special Act on Establishment and Management of Foreign Educational Institutions in Free Economic Zones and Jeju Free International City.
(2) Matters necessary for procedures, standards, etc. for designating protection areas for children referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Joint Ordinance of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) While passing through the road in protection areas for children, drivers of motor vehicles or trams and riders of horses shall observe measures referred to in paragraph (1) and shall pay attention to the safety of children. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 12-2 (Designation and Management of Protection Areas for Older Persons and Persons with Disabilities)
(1) When a Mayor, etc. deems it necessary to protect older persons or persons with disabilities from the danger of traffic accidents, he/she may take necessary measures, such as restricting or prohibiting the traffic of motor vehicles, horses, and trams by designating a certain section of the road around facilities referred to in subparagraphs 1 through 3 and 3-2 as a protection area for older persons, and a certain section of the road around facilities referred to in subparagraph 4 as a protection area for persons with disabilities, respectively: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Facilities prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, among welfare facilities for older persons specified in Article 31 of the Welfare of Older Persons Act;
2. Natural parks defined in subparagraph 1 of Article 2 of the Natural Parks Act or urban parks defined in subparagraph 3 of Article 2 of the Act on Urban Parks, Green Areas, Etc.;
3-2. Other facilities frequented by older persons, as prescribed by ordinance;
4. Facilities prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, among welfare facilities for persons with disabilities specified in Article 58 of the Act on Welfare of Persons with Disabilities.
(2) Matters necessary for procedures, standards, etc. for designating protection areas for older persons or persons with disabilities referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Joint Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) Drivers of motor vehicles or trams and riders of horses shall abide by the measures referred to in paragraph (1) in protection areas for older persons or persons with disabilities and drive their motor vehicles or trams and ride their horses while paying attention to the safety of the aged or the disabled. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER III WAYS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES AND HORSES TO PASS THROUGH ROADWAYS
 Article 13 (Motor Vehicle and Horse Traffic)
(1) Drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall travel along the roadway on the roads divided by a sidewalk and a roadway: Provided, That when they drive motor vehicles or ride horses into or out of any place, other than a road, they may cross the sidewalk.
(2) In cases falling under the proviso to paragraph (1), drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall cross the sidewalk in a manner that does not impede pedestrian traffic after stopping temporarily to look out the part, etc. to the left and right side of the sidewalk immediately before crossing such sidewalk.
(3) Drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall travel along the part of the road (referring to the roadway where the road is divided into a sidewalk and a roadway) that is to the right of the center line (referring to the median lane where a median lane is marked; hereinafter the same shall apply) of the road.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses may pass along the center or the left-hand side of the road in any of the following cases:
1. Where the road is for one-way traffic;
2. Where it is impracticable for motor vehicles and horses to pass along the right-hand side of the road due to damage to the road, road construction, or other impediments;
3. Where it is intended to overtake other motor vehicles driving ahead of it on a road, the width of the right-hand side of which does not exceed six meters: Provided, That the same shall not apply to any of the following cases:
(a) Where it is impracticable to check the right-hand side of the road;
(b) Where it is feared to impede the traffic approaching from the opposite direction;
(c) Where safety signs, etc. prohibit or restrict the passing of other motor vehicles driving ahead of it;
4. Where the width of the right-hand side of the road is not wide enough for the traffic of motor vehicles and horses;
5. Where the commissioner of a district police agency finds it necessary to designate any section and traffic methods in order to prevent danger to traffic at the curve of a steeply sloping road and that motor vehicles and horses pass along according to such designation.
(5) Neither drivers of motor vehicles nor riders of horses shall pass into any safety area, etc. access to which is prohibited by safety signs.
(6) No riders of horses or vehicles (excluding bicycles) shall pass along the bike lane or the roadside except places where thoroughfare is permitted with safety marking: Provided, That the same shall not apply to bicycle priority lanes specified in subparagraph 4 of Article 3 of the Promotion of the Use of Bicycles Act. <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 13-2 (Special Cases on Passing Methods of Bicycles)
(1) Each bicycle rider shall pass along a bike lane at a place where a separate bike lane exist (including an exclusive road constructed for only bicycles to go through pursuant to Article 15 (1); hereafter in this Article, the same shall apply).
(2) Each bicycle rider shall pass along close to the right side of the road at a place where no bike lane is constructed.
(3) Any bicycle rider may pass along a roadside (excluding a section where thoroughfare for bicycles is prohibited with safety marking). In such cases, when bicycle riding obstructs passage of pedestrians, each bicycle rider shall pass through slowly or stop for a while.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) and Article 13 (1), any bicycle rider may pass along the sidewalk in any of the following cases. In such cases, each bicycle rider shall go slowly from the center of the sidewalk to the roadside or a place designated with safety marking, and when bicycle riding obstructs passage of pedestrians, each bicycle rider shall stop for a while: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Where a child, senior citizen, or physically challenged person prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety rides a bicycle: Provided, That where such person rides an electronic bicycle under subparagraph 1-2 of Article 2 of the Promotion of the Use of Bicycles Act without turning off the motor of the electronic bicycle shall be excluded herefrom;
2. Where thoroughfare for bicycles is permitted with safety marking;
3. Where a bicycle is unable to pass through a road owing to the destruction of the road, road improvement, or other obstacles, etc.
(5) At least two bicycle riders are not allowed to pass side by side, except where thoroughfare for bicycles is permitted with safety marking.
(6) When a bicycle rider intends to cross the road at a crosswalk, he/she shall get off his/her bicycle and walk with his/her bicycle.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 14 (Marking, etc. of Lanes)
(1) When deemed necessary to ensure smooth flow of traffic of motor vehicles and horses, the commissioner of a district police agency may mark a lane prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety on a road. In such cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may mark up a reversible lane with signal apparatus to indicate the direction of traffic on any road in which the traffic volume of both directions varies greatly according to time, in order to optimize the number of lanes available for the direction with the greatest traffic volume. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided for in this Act or orders issued under this Act, drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall pass along the lane marked on a road: Provided, That when the commissioner of a district police agency designates the means for traffic otherwise, drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horse shall pass through the lane according to such means.
(3) Where it is intended to travel along a road in which the lane is marked and the width of any motor vehicle is wider than that of a lane prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, which is likely to impede safe and smooth flow of traffic, the driver of such motor vehicle shall be prohibited from traveling along such road: Provided, That the same shall not apply where the driver of any motor vehicle obtains permission therefor from the chief of the police station having jurisdiction over the place of his/her departure, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) Where a motor vehicle for which permission under the proviso to paragraph (3) is to be obtained corresponds to a motor vehicle required to obtain an operation permit under the proviso to Article 77 (1) of the Road Act, the chief of the relevant police station shall pre-consult with the road management agency of the relevant road which the motor vehicle intends to travel along, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, and the motor vehicle which has obtained the permit from the chief of the police station following such consultation shall be deemed to have received the operation permit under the proviso to Article 77 (1) of the Road Act. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(5) Drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall be prohibited from shifting their routes on the road in which any shift in route is especially prohibited by safety signs: Provided, That the same shall not apply where obstacles exist due to any damaged road or any road works, etc.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 15 (Marking Exclusive Lanes)
(1) When specifically necessary to ensure smooth flow of traffic, a Mayor, etc. may mark exclusive lanes (referring to lanes on which only motor vehicles designated by type and the number of persons aboard may run; hereinafter the same shall apply) on the road after consulting with the commissioner of a district police agency or the chief of a police station with regard thereto.
(2) Necessary matters concerning kinds of exclusive lanes, motor vehicles permitted to travel along exclusive lanes, and the operation of exclusive lanes shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) Any motor vehicle that is not a motor vehicle permitted to travel along an exclusive lane pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be prohibited from traveling along such exclusive lanes: Provided, That the same shall apply where any emergency motor vehicle travels along the exclusive lane for emergency purposes and other cases prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 15-2 (Installation, etc. of Bicycle Crosscut)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency may install bicycle crosscuts for the safety of bicycle riders crossing the road according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) When a bicycle rider intends to cross the road where a separate bicycle crosscut exists riding on a bicycle, he/she shall use a bicycle crosscut.
(3) When a bicycle passes through a bicycle crosscut, riders of horses and vehicles shall stop in front of such bicycle crosscut (at a place where a stop line is installed, referring to the stop line) for a while lest they should obstruct or endanger bicycle crossing.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 16 (Construction, etc. of Tram Roads)
(1) Where a Mayor, etc. intends to construct tramway tracks or tram lanes in order to ensure the smooth flow of traffic, he/she shall consult with the commissioner of the competent district police agency about the following matters before obtaining approval of an urban railroad business plan pursuant to Article 7 (1) of the Urban Railroad Act. The same shall also apply where he/she intends to revise such plan:
1. Methods of installing trams, and sections in which trams are installed;
2. Installation of traffic safety facilities in tram roads;
3. Other matters concerning the management of tram roads.
(2) Drivers of trams shall pass along tramway tracks or tram lanes under paragraph (1), and drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall not pass along tramway tracks or tram lanes except in the following cases:
1. Where they traverse a tramway site to make a left- or right-hand turn, crossing, or U-turn;
2. Where it is unavoidable to enter into tramway tracks or tram lanes for the repair of roads, traffic safety facilities, road appurtenances, etc.;
3. Where an emergency motor vehicle moves along tram lanes for its original emergency purposes.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018]
 Article 17 (Speed of Motor Vehicles, etc. and Trams)
(1) The speed of motor vehicles, etc. and trams on the road shall be determined by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) When deemed necessary to prevent danger and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic on the road, the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency or the commissioner of a district police agency may designate zones or sections in which the speed referred to in paragraph (1) is restricted, according to the following classification:
1. The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency: Expressway;
2. The commissioner of a district police agency: Road other than expressway.
(3) Drivers of motor vehicles, etc. and trams shall be prohibited from driving motor vehicles, etc. and trams at a speed above the maximum speed limit or at a speed below the minimum speed limit referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2): Provided, That the same shall not apply where the driver of any motor vehicle, etc. or tram drives the motor vehicle, etc. or tram at a speed below the minimum speed limit on the grounds of traffic congestion and inevitability. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 18 (Prohibition on Road Crossing, etc.)
(1) When it is likely to impede the normal flow of traffic of pedestrians, other motor vehicles and horses, drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses shall be prohibited from crossing the road, making a U-turn, or moving backward.
(2) When deemed specifically necessary to prevent danger and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic on the road, the commissioner of a district police agency may designate any section of the road where it is prohibited for motor vehicles and horses to cross the road, to make a U-turn, or to move backward.
(3) When drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses intend to enter the road from buildings, parking lots, etc., they shall first stop their motor vehicles and horses, confirm the safety of such actions and proceed slowly driving the motor vehicles and riding horses.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 19 (Maintaining of Safe Distance, etc.)
(1) When a motor vehicle is traveling behind any other motor vehicle traveling in the same direction, a driver of any motor vehicle shall maintain a distance necessary to avoid any collision with the motor vehicle traveling ahead of it when the latter stops suddenly.
(2) A driver of a motor vehicle, etc. shall take care of a bicycle rider going in the same direction and shall assure a necessary distance to avoid collision with such bicycle when he/she passes by it. <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
(3) No driver of any motor vehicle shall change course when it is likely to impede normal traffic of other motor vehicles running in the direction to which he/she intends to change his/her route.
(4) No driver of any motor vehicle shall apply the brake in order to abruptly stop the motor vehicle or reduce the speed of the motor vehicle, except where he/she intends to prevent any danger and on the grounds of inevitability.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 20 (Obligations to Yield Routes)
(1) Where he/she intends to drive at a speed slower than that of a motor vehicle behind, any driver of every motor vehicle (excluding emergency motor vehicles) shall yield the way for the motor vehicle behind by driving his/her motor vehicle along the right side of the road.
(2) When motor vehicles other than an emergency motor vehicle go through opposite to each other on a narrow road, a motor vehicle according to the classification referred to in the following subparagraphs shall yield the way by getting out of the way to the right side of the road:
1. Where motor vehicles go through opposite to each other on the sloping narrow road, a motor vehicle going up;
2. Where a motor vehicle carrying a person or loading goods and an empty motor vehicle without carrying a person or goods go through opposite to each other on a narrow road other than a sloping narrow road, an empty motor vehicle.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 21 (Means of Overtaking)
(1) When a driver of any motor vehicle intends to overtake another motor vehicle, he/she shall drive on the left-hand side of the other motor vehicle.
(2) When a bicycle rider intends to pass ahead of a motor vehicle which drives slowly or stops, he/she may go through the right side of the motor vehicle ahead, notwithstanding paragraph (1). In such cases, he/she shall go slowly or stop for a while in consideration of the safety of a person getting in or getting out of the motor vehicle stopped.
(3) In cases of paragraphs (1) and (2), the driver of any motor vehicle intending to overtake another motor vehicle shall pay due attention to the traffic of the opposite direction and the traffic in front of the motor vehicle traveling ahead, and shall overtake the other motor vehicle traveling ahead at a safe speed and in a safe manner such as using the direction indictors, lights or horn, considering the speed and route of the motor vehicle traveling ahead and the road conditions.
(4) When another motor vehicle is attempting to overtake that motor vehicle in the manner provided for in paragraphs (1) through (3) or Article 60 (2), the driver of any motor vehicle shall not impede the other motor vehicle trying to overtake the motor vehicle by competing with the other motor vehicle by driving at a higher speed or blocking the other motor vehicle trying to overtake the motor vehicle in front of it.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 22 (Timing and Place of Prohibition on Overtaking)
(1) The driver of any motor vehicle shall be prohibited from passing another motor vehicle running ahead of it in any of the following cases:
1. Where another motor vehicle is traveling along on the left-hand side of the motor vehicle running ahead of it;
2. Where the motor vehicle running ahead is passing another motor vehicle or intends to pass another motor vehicle.
(2) The driver of any motor vehicle shall be prohibited from overtaking another any of the following motor vehicles:
1. Motor vehicle that stops or travels slowly in accordance with this Act or any order issued under this Act;
2. Motor vehicle that stops or travels slowly in accordance with instructions given by police officers;
3. Motor vehicle that stops or travels slowly in order to prevent danger.
(3) The driver of any motor vehicle shall be prohibited from passing another motor vehicle running ahead of it at any of the following:
1. An intersection;
2. Inside any tunnel;
3. The surface of any bridge;
4. The curve of a road, the area near summit of a sloping road, or the decline of a steeply sloping road, etc. that are recognized by the commissioner of a district police agency as being necessary to prevent danger on the road and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic, and are also designated by safety signs.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 23 (Prohibition on Cutting In)
The driver of any motor vehicle shall not change lanes in front of the motor vehicles falling under any subparagraph of Article 22 (2).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 24 (Passing Through Railroad Crossing)
(1) When intending to pass through a railroad crossing (hereinafter referred to as "railroad crossing"), the driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall temporarily stop in front of the railroad crossing and then pass through the railroad crossing after confirming whether it is safe to cross: Provided, That the driver may cross the railroad crossing according to signals conveyed by the signal apparatus, etc. without temporarily stopping in front of the railroad crossing. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) The driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall be prohibited from attempting to cross a railroad crossing when the crossing arm is lowered or is about to be lowered or the alarm system is sounding. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) When the driver of any motor vehicle or tram is unable to drive the motor vehicle or tram off the railroad crossing because of mechanical breakdown, etc. while passing through the railroad crossing, he/she shall request without delay the passengers to exit the motor vehicle or tram to a safe place and then notify railroad officials or police officers thereof by using the emergency signal apparatus, etc. or other available means. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 25 (Means of Passing through Intersections)
(1) When intending to make a right-hand turn at an intersection, the driver of any motor vehicle shall turn to the right and slowly drive the motor vehicle along the right-hand side of the road. In such cases, the motor vehicle driver turning to the right shall give attention to a pedestrian or a bicycle stopping or going according to a signal.
(2) When intending to make a left-hand turn at an intersection, the driver of any motor vehicle shall turn to the left by using the inside of the center of the intersection while driving the motor vehicle through the median lane of the road: Provided, That in places recognized as being especially necessary by the commissioner of the district police agency, taking into account the traffic conditions of the intersection, the driver of any motor vehicle may pass through the intersection along the outside of the center thereof.
(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), when a bicycle rider intends to turn to the left, he/she shall go slowly by the right side of the road in advance and turn to the left at the edge of a crossroad.
(4) Where the driver of any motor vehicle sends a signal by using the hand, direction indicators, or lights in order to make a right- or left-hand turn pursuant to paragraphs (1) through (3), the driver of any motor vehicle following the motor vehicle sending the signal shall not impede the passage of the latter.
(5) When intending to drive a motor vehicle or tram into the intersection in which traffic is controlled by signal apparatus, no driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall drive the motor vehicle or tram into the intersection where the situation of another motor vehicle or tram in front in his/her direction makes him/her stop his/her motor vehicle or tram in the intersection (where a stoppage line is marked, referring to the area of such stoppage line that is crossed) and it is likely to impede traffic of other motor vehicles or trams. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(6) When intending to drive a motor vehicle into the intersection where traffic is not controlled, but safety signs indicating a temporary stop or yield are functioning, the driver of any motor vehicle shall temporarily stop or yield the right of way in order not to impede the traffic flow of other motor vehicles.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 26 (Yield Driving at Intersection Where Traffic Is Not Controlled)
(1) The driver of any motor vehicle who intends to drive a motor vehicle into an intersection where traffic is not controlled shall yield the right of way to other motor vehicles, when the motor vehicle is already traveling through the intersection.
(2) Where the width of the intersection is wider than that of the road on which the motor vehicle is running, the driver of any motor vehicle who intends to drive a motor vehicle into an intersection where traffic is not controlled shall drive the motor vehicle slowly, and when another motor vehicle is trying to enter the intersection from a road, the width of which is wider than that of the intersection, shall yield the right of way the other motor vehicle.
(3) A motor vehicle driver intending to enter an intersection at the same time where no traffic control is made shall yield the right of way to a motor vehicle on the right side of the road.
(4) The driver of any motor vehicle who intends to make a left-hand turn at an intersection where traffic is not controlled shall yield the right of way to any other motor vehicle, when any other motor vehicle intends to proceed straight through or make a right-hand.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 27 (Protection of Pedestrians)
(1) When pedestrians (including a bicycle rider who gets off a bicycle and walk the bicycle pursuant to Article 13-2 (6)) are passing along the crosswalk, the driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall temporarily stop in front of the crosswalk (if the stoppage line is marked on the crosswalk, referring to the stoppage line) so as not to impede their passage or endanger them. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) No driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall impede the traffic of pedestrians crossing the road according to the signal apparatus or the signals or instructions given by police officers, etc. where the driver intends to make a left- or right-hand turn at the intersection where traffic is controlled. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) No driver of any motor vehicle shall impede the traffic of pedestrians crossing the intersection or the road in the vicinity of the intersection where traffic is controlled.
(4) The driver of any motor vehicle shall drive the motor vehicle slowly while maintaining a safe distance where pedestrians are passing through a safety zone that is set up on the road and his/her motor vehicle passes by pedestrians on a narrow road on which the lane for motor vehicles is not drawn.
(5) When pedestrians are crossing the road on which a crosswalk is not opened pursuant to Article 10 (3), the driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall temporarily stop the motor vehicle or tram while maintaining a safe distance in order for pedestrians to safely cross the road. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 28 (Opening Exclusive Roads for Pedestrians)
(1) When specifically necessary to protect the traffic of pedestrians, the commissioner of a district police agency or the chief of a police station may open an exclusive road for pedestrians on the road.
(2) Drivers of motor vehicles or trams and riders of horses shall be prohibited from passing through exclusive roads for pedestrians referred to in paragraph (1): Provided, That when deemed specifically necessary, the commissioner of a district police agency or the chief of a police station may permit drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses to pass through an exclusive road for pedestrians. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) Drivers of motor vehicles and riders of horses permitted to pass through an exclusive road for pedestrians pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (2) shall drive their motor vehicles and ride their horses at the walking speed of pedestrians or temporarily stop so as not to endanger pedestrians or impede the traffic of pedestrians.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 29 (Priority Traffic of Emergency Motor Vehicles)
(1) Any emergency motor vehicle may pass through the center or the left-hand side of the road due to emergent or inevitable reasons, notwithstanding Article 13 (3).
(2) No emergency motor vehicle may stop due to emergent or inevitable reasons, even where it is required to stop pursuant to this Act or any order issued under this Act.
(3) In cases falling under paragraph (1) or (2), the driver of any emergency motor vehicle shall drive the emergency motor vehicle while paying particular attention to the safety of traffic.
(4) When any emergency motor vehicle is approaching the intersection or in the vicinity of the intersection, drivers of motor vehicles and trams, and riders of horses shall pull away from the intersection to temporarily stop. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(5) When any emergency motor vehicle is approaching a place, other than that referred to in paragraph (4), the drivers of all motor vehicles and trams shall yield the right of way to the emergency motor vehicle. <Amended by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(6) No driver of any motor vehicle specified under subparagraph 22 of Article 2 shall flicker a warning light or sound a siren installed pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Management Act, unless the relevant motor vehicle is operated for emergency purposes of its own: Provided, That this shall not apply where it conducts patrol, training, etc. for preventing crimes, fire, etc., as prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 30 (Special Case on Emergency Motor Vehicles)
Any of the following matters shall not apply to emergency motor vehicles:
1. Restrictions on the speed of motor vehicles provided for in Article 17: Provided, That where the speed of emergency motor vehicles is restricted on emergency motor vehicles under Article 17, the provisions of the same Article shall apply to them;
2. Prohibition on the act of overtaking any other motor vehicle provided for in Article 22;
3. Prohibition on the act of cutting in front of other motor vehicles provided for in Article 23.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 31 (Places for Motor Vehicles to Travel Slowly or Temporarily Stop)
(1) The driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall slowly drive the motor vehicle or tram in any of the following places: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. An intersection where traffic is not controlled;
2. At the vicinity of a bend in the road;
3. At the vicinity of the summit of a sloping road;
4. The decline of a steeply sloping road;
5. A place designated by safety signs by the commissioner of a district police agency after recognizing such place as being necessary to prevent danger on the road and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic.
(2) The driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall temporarily stop in any of the following places: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. An intersection where traffic is not controlled, it is impossible to view the left and the right, or the traffic is heavy;
2. A place designated by safety signs by the commissioner of a district police agency after recognizing such place as being necessary to prevent danger on the road and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 32 (Prohibition on Stopping and Parking Motor Vehicles)
Each driver of a motor vehicle shall be prohibited from stopping or parking a motor vehicle in any of the following places: Provided, That the same shall not apply where the driver of a motor vehicle temporarily stops his/her motor vehicle to comply with this Act, any order issued under this Act, or instructions given by police officers, and to prevent danger: <Amended by Act No. 15364, Feb. 9, 2018>
1. An intersection, crosswalk, road crossing, or the sidewalk of a road divided into a sidewalk and a roadway (excluding any road parking area established across both a roadway and sidewalk);
2. A place located within five meters from the edge of an intersection or the corner of a road;
3. A place located within ten meters from any side of a safety zone on a road marked with a safety zone;
4. A place located within ten meters from where any pillar, board, or line indicating a bus stop is located or marked: Provided, That the same shall not apply where any bus driver stops or parks a bus in order for passengers to board or alight from the bus at any bus stop located along the service route during service hours;
5. A place located within ten meters from the edge of a road crossing or crosswalk;
6. A place located within five meters from any of the following:
(a) A place in which a fire extinguishing water supply system or emergency fire-fighting equipment is installed pursuant to Article 10 of the Framework Act on Fire-Fighting Services;
(b) A place in which the fire-fighting systems under Article 2 (1) 1 of the Act on Fire Prevention and Installation, Maintenance, and Safety Control of Fire-Fighting Systems, which are prescribed by Presidential Decree, are installed;
7. A place designated by the commissioner of a district police agency as being necessary to prevent danger on the road and ensure the safety and the smooth flow of traffic of the road.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 33 (Places where Parking Motor Vehicles is Prohibited)
Each driver of a motor vehicle shall be prohibited from parking a motor vehicle in any of the following places:
1. The inside of a tunnel and on a bridge;
2. A place located within five meters from any of the following:
(a) Where any road works are under way, both edges of the working area;
(b) A place designated by the commissioner of a district police agency at the request of the head of the competent fire headquarters, among buildings to which the place of business of any publicly used establishment under the Special Act on the Safety Control of Publicly Used Establishments belongs;
3. A place designated by the commissioner of a district police agency as being necessary to prevent danger on the road and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 15364, Feb. 9, 2018]
 Article 34 (Ways to Stop and Park Motor Vehicles and Restrictions on Timing)
When a driver of any motor vehicle intends to stop or park a motor vehicle on a road or road-side parking area, he/she shall stop the motor vehicle on the right-hand edge of the roadway and observe ways to stop and park the motor vehicle, the timing and prohibited matters, etc. prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 34-2 (Special Cases on Places where Stopping or Parking is Prohibited)
Notwithstanding subparagraph 7 of Article 32 or subparagraph 3 of Article 33, motor vehicles may be stopped or parked in a place where the commissioner of a district police agency has permitted stopping or parking with safety signs after specifying the zone, time, method, and kind of motor vehicle among places in which stopping or parking of motor vehicles is prohibited under subparagraph 7 of Article 32 or subparagraph 3 of Article 33. <Amended by Act No. 15364, Feb. 9, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 34-3 (Ways to Stop and Park Motor Vehicles in Sloping Places)
When a driver of any motor vehicle intends to stop or park a motor vehicle in a sloping place (including cases of stopping or parking in sloping places other than roads), he/she shall take measures to prevent the occurrence of any slipping accident, such as installing wheel chocks or turning the steering system toward the edge of the road, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018]
 Article 35 (Measures against Violation of Motor Vehicle Parking)
(1) When a motor vehicle parked in violation of Article 32, 33, or 34 is likely to cause danger to traffic or impede the flow of traffic, any of the following persons may order the driver of the relevant motor vehicle or the person in charge of management to change the way in which such motor vehicle is parked or to relocate the parked motor vehicle to another place:
1. A police officer;
2. A public official (hereinafter referred to as "public official of a Si/Gun") appointed by a Mayor, etc. (including a Do Governor; hereafter in this Article, the same shall apply), as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) In cases falling under paragraph (1), when the driver of a motor vehicle or the person in change of management is absent from the location, the chief of a police station or a Mayor, etc. may change the way in which the motor vehicle is parked in person or take measures necessary to change the way in which the motor vehicle is parked in order to prevent danger on the road and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic within the necessary limit or relocate the motor vehicle to the competent police station, or a place designated by the chief of the competent police station or the competent Mayor, etc. under inevitable circumstances.
(3) Where a motor vehicle parked in violation of the manner of parking referred to in paragraph (2) is relocated to the competent police station, or a place designated by the chief of the competent police station or the competent Mayor, etc., the relevant chief of police station or the relevant Mayor, etc. shall keep the motor vehicle in custody with the duty of due care of a good manager's and notify without delay the user (referring to the owner or the person entrusted by the owner to manage the motor vehicle; hereinafter the same shall apply) or driver of the motor vehicle of such fact and take measures necessary to return the motor vehicle.
(4) In cases falling under paragraph (3), when it is impossible to identify the name and domicile of the user or driver of a motor vehicle, the relocation shall be published in a manner prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(5) Notwithstanding measures and publication necessary to return a motor vehicle pursuant to paragraphs (3) and (4), when the user or driver of the motor vehicle fails to request the return of the motor vehicle within one month from the date such measures or publication is made, the chief of the police station or the Mayor, etc. may sell or scrap the relevant motor vehicle, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(6) Expenses incurred by the relocation, custody, publication, sale or scrapping, etc. of a motor vehicle that violates the manner of parking under paragraphs (2) through (5) shall be borne by the user of the motor vehicle. In such cases, Articles 5 and 6 of the Administrative Vicarious Execution Act shall apply to the collection of such expenses.
(7) Where a motor vehicle is sold or scrapped pursuant to paragraph (5), any balance that remains after appropriating expenses incurred in relocating, keeping, publishing, selling, or scraping the motor vehicle shall be paid to the user of the motor vehicle: Provided, That where it is impossible to pay the balance to the user of the motor vehicle, the balance shall be deposited pursuant to the Deposit Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 36 (Towing and Keeping Motor Vehicles by Agent)
(1) The chief of a police station or a Mayor, etc. may fully or partially assign the work of towing, keeping, and returning motor vehicles towed pursuant to Article 35 to any corporation, organization, or individual (hereinafter referred to as "corporation, etc.") meeting the qualifications including human resources, facilities, and equipment necessary to perform such work on his/her behalf.
(2) The requirements of human resources, facilities, and equipment, etc. that must be met by any corporation, etc. that performs the work of towing, keeping, and returning motor vehicles by proxy pursuant to paragraph (1), and other matters concerning the performance of work by agent, shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) Where the chief of a police station or a Mayor, etc. has the work of towing, keeping, and returning motor vehicles performed by agent under paragraph (1), he/she may place an order to take measures and conduct education, necessary to perform such work.
(4) The executive officers and employees in charge of any corporation, etc. towing, keeping, and returning motor vehicles by agent pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be deemed public officials for the purposes of Articles 129 through 132 of the Criminal Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 37 (Motor Vehicle and Tram Lights)
(1) The driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall keep its headlights, sidelights, taillights and other lights alight as prescribed by Presidential Decree in any of the following cases: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Where the driver stops or parks the motor vehicle or tram on the road due to breakdown or other inevitable reasons when he/she drives the motor vehicle or tram on the road at night (referring to the period from sunset to sunrise; hereinafter the same shall apply);
2. Where the driver stops or parks the motor vehicle or tram on the road due to breakdown or other inevitable reasons when it is foggy, rains or snows while driving the motor vehicle or tram on the road;
3. When the driver stops or parks the motor vehicle or tram on the road in a tunnel because he/she is driving through the tunnel or due to breakdown or other unavoidable circumstances.
(2) Where a motor vehicle or tram runs head on with any other motor vehicle or tram or travels just behind any other motor vehicle or tram ahead of it at night, the motor vehicle or tram driver shall take measures to reduce the brightness of its lights or temporarily turn off its lights as prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 38 (Signals of Motor Vehicles)
(1) When intending to turn to the right or the left, cross a road, the driver of any motor vehicle shall make a U-turn, drive the motor vehicle slowly, stop the motor vehicle, drive the motor vehicle in reverse, change course while driving the motor vehicle in the same direction, convey hand signals, use its direction indicators or lights until completely ends such acts.
(2) The timing for, and manner of conveying signals referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 39 (Methods of, and Restrictions on, Boarding or Loading)
(1) With regard to the number of passengers, loading weight, and loading capacity, the driver of any motor vehicle shall be prohibited from driving a motor vehicle with passengers or freight to be loaded in excess of the traffic safety standards prescribed by Presidential Decree: Provided, That the same shall not apply where permission therefor is obtained from the chief of a police station having jurisdiction over the place of departure.
(2) Article 14 (4) shall apply mutatis mutandis where a motor vehicle for which permission under the proviso to paragraph (1) is to be obtained corresponds to a motor vehicle required to obtain an operation permit under the proviso to Article 77 (1) of the Road Act. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(3) The driver of any motor vehicle or tram shall take measures necessary to correctly open and close the doors of the motor vehicle or tram in order to prevent passengers aboard, boarding, or alighting the motor vehicle or tram from falling out of the motor vehicle or tram while driving the motor vehicle or tram. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(4) The driver of any motor vehicle shall take measures necessary to have loaded freight covered and fastened in order to prevent it from falling off while driving the motor vehicle. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(5) The driver of any motor vehicle shall be prohibited from driving the motor vehicle while holding an infant or animal in his/her arms or carrying articles in his/her seat that are feared to impede the safety of the motor vehicle. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(6) When deemed necessary to prevent danger on the road and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic, the commissioner of a district police agency may get drivers of motor vehicles to restrict the number of passengers aboard, the weight loaded, and the loading capacity. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 40 (Prohibition on Driving Motor Vehicles in Poor Repair)
The user, person in charge of maintenance, or driver of each motor vehicle shall be prohibited from allowing anyone to drive or from driving any motor vehicle, the mechanisms of which are not maintained in compliance with the Motor Vehicle Management Act, the Construction Machinery Management Act, or orders issued under the said Acts (hereinafter referred to as "poorly repaired motor vehicle").
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 41 (Checks of Vehicles in Poor Repair)
(1) When a motor vehicle deemed poorly repaired is traveling, police officers may first stop the motor vehicle and then request the driver of such motor vehicle to produce the motor vehicle registration certificate or the driver's license and check its mechanisms.
(2) When a motor vehicle is found to be poorly repaired as a result of the check referred to in paragraph (1), police officers may have the driver of the motor vehicle drive the motor vehicle after taking emergency measures according to the extent of its poor maintenance or have the driver continue to drive the motor vehicle after determining the section and the traffic route and laying down conditions necessary to prevent dangers, considering the condition of traffic.
(3) When the state of maintenance of a motor vehicle is extremely poor and the motor vehicle is likely to cause danger, the commissioner of a district police agency may keep the motor vehicle registration certificate of the motor vehicle in custody and order the driver of the motor vehicle to temporarily stop, notwithstanding paragraph (2). In such cases, if deemed necessary, the commissioner of a district police agency may set a period of maintenance by up to ten days and order the suspension of the use of the motor vehicle during the period of maintenance.
(4) Necessary matters concerning the check of mechanisms and the suspension of use referred to in paragraphs (1) through (3) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 42 (Restrictions on Similar Signs and Prohibition on Driving Motor Vehicles)
(1) No one shall drive any motor vehicle similar to a motor vehicle used to patrol traffic, a motor vehicle used to investigate crimes or an emergency motor vehicle, make paintwork and markings that cause abhorrence or drive any motor vehicle, etc. marked with such paintwork, markings, etc.
(2) The scope of paintwork, markings, etc. that are restricted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER IV OBLIGATIONS OF DRIVERS AND EMPLOYERS, ETC.
 Article 43 (Prohibition on Driving Motor Vehicle without Driver's License)
Anyone who does not obtain his/her own driver's licence from the commissioner of a district police agency pursuant to Article 80 or anyone who holds a driver's license, the effect of which is suspended, shall be prohibited from driving any motor vehicle.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 44 (Prohibition on Driving while Intoxicated)
(1) While intoxicated, no one shall drive any motor vehicle, etc. (including construction machinery, other than construction machinery provided for in the proviso to Article 26 (1) of the Construction Machinery Management Act; hereafter in this Article and Articles 45, 47, 93 (1) 1 through 4, and 148-2, the same shall apply) or tram, or ride a bicycle. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) When deemed necessary to ensure the safety of traffic and prevent danger or anyone is evidently deemed to be driving a motor vehicle, etc. or tram or riding a bicycle while intoxicated in violation of paragraph (1), police officers may require him/her to take a breath test in order to determine whether that person is intoxicated. In such cases, the driver or rider shall comply with the breath test required by any police officer. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) With respect to any driver who refuses to accept the result of a test pursuant to paragraph (2), another test may be conducted using the driver's blood collected after obtaining the driver's consent therefor.
(4) The threshold for the state of intoxication at which anyone is prohibited from driving a motor vehicle, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be not less than 0.05 percent of blood-alcohol concentration.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 45 (Prohibition against Driving Motor Vehicles on Grounds of Overwork, etc.)
In addition to driving while intoxicated under Article 44, the driver of any motor vehicle, etc. or tram shall be prohibited from driving a motor vehicle, etc. or tram in a state that makes it impracticable for him/her to drive a motor vehicle, etc. or tram normally due to the impact of overwork or sickness, or the influence of drugs (referring to narcotics, marijuana, psychotropic drugs, and others prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety; hereinafter the same shall apply), or other reasons. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 46 (Prohibition on Dangerous Collective Conduct)
(1) The drivers of two or more motor vehicles, etc. shall be prohibited from driving their motor vehicles, etc. in a row or side by side without justifiable grounds, in a manner that endangers other persons and causes danger to traffic.
(2) Passengers in a motor vehicle, etc. shall not take the lead in any dangerous collective conduct pursuant to paragraph (1).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 46-2 (Prohibition of Interference with Functions of Traffic Regulation Equipment)
No one shall manufacture, import, sell or install a device interfering with functions of traffic regulation equipment for the purpose of avoidance of traffic regulation.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 46-3 (Prohibition of Reckless Driving)
No driver of a motor vehicle shall threaten or endanger any other person or cause danger to traffic by consecutively committing at least two of the following offenses or by committing any of the following offenses continuously or repeatedly:
1. Violation of a signal or instruction, in contravention of Article 5;
2. Driving over the center line, in contravention of Article 13 (3);
3. Violation of speed, in contravention of Article 17 (3);
4. Violation of prohibition of crossing the road, making a U-turn, or moving backward, in contravention of Article 18 (1);
5. Failing to maintain a safe distance or violation of prohibition of changing course or applying brake abruptly, in contravention of Article 19;
6. Violation of the method of overtaking another motor vehicle or of prohibition of impeding any other motor vehicle trying to overtake his/her motor vehicle, in contravention of Article 21 (1), (3), or (4);
7. Generation of any noise without justifiable grounds, in contravention of Article 49 (1) 8;
8. Violation of overtaking method on an expressway, in contravention of Article 60 (2);
9. Violation of prohibition of crossing, making a U-turn, or moving in reverse on an expressway, etc., in contravention of Article 62.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015]
 Article 47 (Measures to Prevent Danger)
(1) When a driver of any motor vehicle, etc. or tram is deemed to be driving the motor vehicle, etc. or tram in violation of Articles 43 through 45, police officers may first stop the motor vehicle, etc. or tram and then ask the driver of such motor vehicle, etc. or tram to produce his/her driver's license (hereinafter referred to as "driver's license"). <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) With respect to anyone who drives a motor vehicle, etc. or tram in violation of Articles 44 and 45 or rides a bicycle in violation of Article 44, police officers may order the driver of the motor vehicle, etc. or tram or the rider of the bicycle to stop driving the motor vehicle, etc. or tram or riding the bicycle until the point at which he/she is able to drive the motor vehicle, etc. or tram or ride the bicycle normally, and take necessary measures against the driver or rider, such as relocating the motor vehicle, etc. or tram or the bicycle. <Amended by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) The provisions of Article 35 (3) through (7) and Article 36 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the relocation of a motor vehicle under paragraph (2). <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 48 (Duties of Safe and Eco-Driving)
(1) Every motor vehicle or tram driver shall correctly operate the steering system, brakes and other devices of his/her motor vehicle or tram and shall not drive his/her motor vehicle or tram at a speed and in a manner that endangers and impedes other persons according to the traffic conditions of the relevant road and the structure and performance of his/her motor vehicle or tram. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) Every motor vehicle driver shall endeavor to reduce fuel consumption and carbon emissions by driving in an environmentally-friendly and economical way.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 49 (Matters to be Observed by Every Driver)
(1) Every motor vehicle or tram driver shall observe each of the following matters: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12045, Aug. 13, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. When driving a motor vehicle on any water puddle, no driver shall cause harm to other persons by splashing those persons with muddy water;
2. In any of the following events, a motor vehicle driver shall temporarily stop his/her motor vehicle:
(a) When a driver recognizes the danger of a traffic accident involving children, including cases when children are crossing the road unaccompanied by their caregivers, and children are sitting, standing, or playing on the road;
(b) When a blind person is crossing the road, taking such a measure as holding of a white cane or being accompanied by a guide dog for persons with disabilities;
(c) When physically handicapped persons or senior citizens unable to use road-crossing facilities, such as underpass and overpass, are crossing the road;
3. No driver shall drive a motor vehicle that may impede the safe flow of traffic since the light transmission ratio of visible light of shade of front windscreen and front left door glass and front right door glass fall short of the standards set by Presidential Decree: Provided, That motor vehicles used by security guards for key figures, ambulances, and funeral motor vehicles shall be excluded herefrom;
4. No driver shall drive any motor vehicle equipped with devices that disturb the function of traffic law enforcement devices or other apparatuses that make it possible to impede safe driving, in unconformity with the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That the same shall not apply where a device for the development of new technology for autonomous driving motor vehicles under subparagraph 1-3 of Article 2 of the Motor Vehicle Management Act is installed on a motor vehicle;
5. No driver shall impede motor vehicle or horse traffic by engaging in any quarrel, dispute, etc. while parking his/her motor vehicle, etc. or tram on the road;
6. Where a driver leaves any motor vehicle or tram, he/she shall take measures necessary to prevent any traffic accident and prevent any other person from driving the motor vehicle or tram without the driver's consent;
7. No driver shall open the doors of his/her motor vehicle or tram or get off the motor vehicle or tram without verifying the safety of the motor vehicle or tram or persons and shall take measures necessary to prevent his/her passengers from causing any danger to traffic;
8. No driver shall generate any noise that damages other persons by performing any of the following acts without justifiable grounds:
(a) Starting any motor vehicle abruptly and accelerating any motor vehicle abruptly;
(b) Increasing the motor's revolutions per minute without transmitting the power of the motor vehicle's motor to the wheels of the motor vehicle;
(c) Repeatedly or continuously sounding the horn;
9. No driver shall drive any motor vehicle in which passengers are engaged in any disorderly conduct including dancing, without restricting such conduct thereof to the extent that such conduct impedes the driving of the motor vehicle;
10. No driver shall use a cell phone (including a car phone) while driving a motor vehicle, etc. or tram: Provided, That the same shall not apply in any of the following cases:
(a) Where a motor vehicle, etc. or tram is at a standstill;
(b) Where an emergency motor vehicle is being driven;
(c) Where it is necessary to report without delay various kinds of crimes or any accident;
(d) Where any device prescribed by Presidential Decree as not impeding the safe driving of any motor vehicle is being used;
11. No image shall be displayed at a location visible to a driver while driving a motor vehicle, etc. or tram through a device that receives or plays visual media including broadcast (including devices portable by a driver; hereinafter referred to as "video display terminal"): Provided, That the same shall not apply in any of the following cases:
(a) Where a motor vehicle, etc. or tram is at a standstill;
(b) Where the following images are displayed at a video display terminal installed or mounted on a motor vehicle, etc. or tram:
(i) Images which provide geographic information or traffic information;
(ii) Images which provide guidance at an urgent situation, such as a state of national emergency or disastrous situation;
(iii) Images which provide assistance in watching right and left or front and rear of a motor vehicle, etc. or tram while driving;
11-2. No driver shall operate a video display terminal while driving any motor vehicle, etc. or tram: Provided, That the same shall not apply in any of the following cases:
(a) Where a motor vehicle, etc. or tram is at a standstill;
(b) Where a driver of any tram operates a video display terminal necessary for driving the tram;
12. No driver shall drive any motor vehicle loaded with freight containers while persons are sitting thereon;
13. A driver shall follow matters designated and published by the commissioner of a district police agency who recognizes them as being necessary to maintain the safety and order of traffic.
(2) Where police officers find any motor vehicle that violates paragraph (1) 3 and 4, they may require the driver of the motor vehicle in question to remove matters subject to violation on the spot or order him/ her to take necessary measures. In such cases, when the driver fails to comply with the order, police officers may remove matters subject to violation and take necessary measures.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 50 (Matters to be Observed by Specific Drivers)
(1) Each driver of any motor vehicle (excluding any two-wheeled vehicle) shall fasten the seat belt thereof while driving the motor vehicle and require all the passengers seated in the motor vehicle to fasten their seat belts (in cases of an infant, this refers to the seat belt after an infant safety harness is mounted; hereafter the same shall apply in this Article and Article 160 (2) 2): Provided, That the same shall not apply where it is difficult to fasten the seat belt due to any illness, etc. or due to any ground prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) Deleted. <by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) Each driver of any two-wheeled vehicle and any motorcycle shall only drive it after wearing a safety harness prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety and shall require any other person riding thereon to wear a safety harness. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) When a bicycle rider rides a bicycle on a bike lane or a road under the Road Act, he/she shall wear a life protection outfit prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety and require any passenger to wear such outfit. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(5) Each driver of any motor vehicle or tram prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, including any motor vehicle used for transport business or a truck, tram, etc., shall be prohibited from performing any of the following activities: Provided, That subparagraph 3 shall apply only to the driver of a commercial bus or tram: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Driving any motor vehicle not equipped with a tachograph or equipped with a tachograph unusable due to any malfunction, etc.;
2. Driving any motor vehicle without using a tachograph for its original purpose;
3. Refusing to take passengers.
(6) No taxicab driver shall share his/her cab for strangers while a passenger is on board, refuse to take passengers, or receive more than reported fare.
(7) No bicycle rider shall ride a bicycle which does not meet the size and structure prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety and may cause danger to traffic safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(8) No bicycle rider shall ride a bicycle under the influence of drugs or where he/she is not likely to ride a bicycle normally due to other grounds. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(9) Each bicycle rider shall turn on the headlight and taillight or wear a light emitting device, such as a luminous strip, when he/she rides a bicycle on the road at night. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 51 (Special Protection of School Buses for Children)
(1) When a school bus for children stops on the road and operates its devices, such as warning lamps, indicating that children or infants are boarding or alighting such school bus, the driver of any motor vehicle driving in the lane on which the school bus has parked and the driver of any other motor vehicle that is driving in the lane just beside the former shall temporarily stop before reaching the school bus and then drive slowly the motor vehicle after checking the safety of such movement. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(2) In cases falling under paragraph (1), the driver of any motor vehicle driving in the opposite direction on a road along which no median line is marked or along a two-lane road shall temporarily stop the motor vehicle before reaching the school bus and then drive slowly the motor vehicle after checking the safety of such movement.
(3) Each driver of any motor vehicle shall be prohibited from overtaking any school bus for children travelling along road while indicating that children or infants are abroad the school bus. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 52 (Reporting, etc. on School Buses for Children)
(1) Each person who intends to operate a school bus for children (excluding motor vehicles for passenger transport business operated for children as its passenger after obtaining a restricted license for passenger transport business under Article 4 (3) of the Passenger Transport Service Act), shall pre-report such intention to the chief of the competent police station, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, and receive a certificate of reporting from him/her. <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) Each person who operates any school bus for children shall always retain the certificate of reporting issued pursuant to paragraph (1) inside each of the school buses.
(3) Motor vehicles that can be used as school buses for children shall be limited to motor vehicles prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. In such cases, such motor vehicles shall meet requirements prescribed by Presidential Decree, such as paintwork, markings, current insurance policy, and the relationship to owner, etc. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) No one shall do paintwork and markings on any motor vehicle in a manner similar to those affixed to school buses or drive any motor vehicle with such paintwork and signs affixed without reporting pursuant to paragraph (1) or obtaining a restricted license for transporting children as its passengers pursuant to Article 4 (3) of the Passenger Transport Service Act. <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 53 (Duties of Drivers, Operators, etc. of School Buses for Children)
(1) Each driver of any school bus for children shall operate warning lamps, etc. provided for in Article 51 (1) only where children or infants board and alight from such school bus and shall make the indication provided for in Article 51 (3) only where such school bus is traveling with children and infants on board. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(2) Each driver of any school bus for children shall start driving the school bus after checking that all the children or infants on board have fastened their seat belts (referring to safety belts that can be adjusted to fit to the physical structures of children or infants; hereafter in this Article, subparagraph 1 of Article 156, and Article 160 (2) 4-2, the same shall apply) and shall, when they alight from the school bus, start driving it after confirming they have arrived at a place safe from motor vehicles, including the sidewalk or roadside area: Provided, That the same shall not apply where it is difficult to fasten a seat belt due to an illness, etc. or due to any ground prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, in connection with the fastening of the seat belt. <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(3) Each operator of any school bus for children shall arrange for any of the following guardians to board the school bus with children or infants aboard, and the guardian aboard shall, when the children or infants get in or get out of the school bus, take measures necessary for the protection of children, such as getting off the school bus to confirm the safe boarding and alighting of the children or infants and ensuring that children or infants are seated with their seat belts fastened during the operation of the motor vehicle: <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
1. A teacher of any kindergarten provided for in the Early Childhood Education Act and any elementary school or any special school provided for in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act;
2. A nursery teacher provided for in subparagraph 5 of Article 2 of the Infant Care Act;
3. An instructor provided for in Article 13 (1) of the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Private Teaching Institutes and Extracurricular Lessons;
4. A person who works for any sports facilities provided for in the Installation and Utilization of Sports Facilities Act;
5. A person nominated by the operator of any school bus for children.
(4) After the driver of a school bus for children finishes driving the relevant school bus for children, he/she shall check whether all the children or infants have alighted therefrom. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 53-2 (Obligations of Drivers of School Buses for Children where No Guardian is Aboard)
A driver of a school bus for children where no guardian is aboard to help children to board or alight from the school bus shall, when children get in or get out of the school bus, get off the school bus and confirm the safe boarding and alighting of the children or infants. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014]
 Article 53-3 (Safety Education for Operators, etc. of School Buses for Children)
(1) Operators and drivers of school buses for children shall receive education regarding the safe operation, etc. of school buses for children (hereinafter referred to as "safety education regarding school buses for children"). <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
(2) Safety education regarding school buses for children shall be provided according to the following classification: <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
1. Initial safety education: Education provided for persons who intend to operate or drive school buses for children before they commence operation or driving thereof;
2. Regular safety education: Education provided regularly every two years for persons who have been continuously operating and driving school buses for children.
(3) No person who operates a school bus for children shall allow a person who fails to receive safety education regarding school buses for children, to drive a school bus for children. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
(4) Other matters necessary for methods, procedures, etc. for providing safety education regarding school buses for children shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 53-4 (Provision of Information, etc. on Violations Committed by School Buses for Children)
(1) Where a person who operates or drives a school bus for children has violated Article 53 or 53-2 or has caused an accident whereby any child has died or has been injured by violating Article 53 or 53-2, the chief of a police station may provide the information thereon to the head of the competent authority that supervises educational facilities for children.
(2) Matters necessary for the detailed standards, methods, procedures, etc. for the provision of information under paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014]
 Article 54 (Measures Taken When Accidents Occur)
(1) When any person is killed or injured or any goods are harmed by traffic, such as driving, etc. of any motor vehicle or tram (hereinafter referred to as "traffic accident"), the driver or occupants (hereinafter referred to as "driver, etc.") of the relevant motor vehicle or tram shall immediately bring the motor vehicle or tram to a stop and take each of the following measures: <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Measures necessary to provide assistance to casualties;
2. Provision of personal information (referring to the name, telephone number, address, etc.; hereafter the same shall apply in Article 148 and subparagraph 10 of Article 156) to the victim.
(2) In cases falling under paragraph (1), when police officers are present on the scene, the driver, etc. of the motor vehicle or tram shall report without delay each of the following matters to the police officers, and when police officers are not present at the scene, the driver, etc. shall report the same to the nearest State police station (including an area patrol unit, a police substation, or a police detachment; hereinafter the same shall apply): Provided, That the same shall not apply where it is evident that only the motor vehicle or tram is damaged and necessary measures are taken to prevent any danger and ensure smooth flow of traffic along the road: <Amended by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. The place where the accident occurs;
2. The number of casualties and the extent of any injuries;
3. Items damaged and the extent of such damage;
4. Other measures, etc. taken.
(3) The police officers of the State police station in receipt of a report pursuant to paragraph (2) shall provide assistance to the injured, and when it is deemed necessary to prevent any further traffic danger, order the driver, etc. who makes the report to wait at the scene until police officers (excluding any autonomous police officer) arrive at the scene.
(4) Police officers may issue orders or directions to the driver, etc. of any motor vehicle or tram who has caused a traffic accident, regarding giving aid to the injured and regarding the safety of traffic, at the scene. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(5) In emergencies, the driver of any emergency motor vehicle, any motor vehicle transporting any injured person, any postal motor vehicle, any tram, etc. may arrange for a person aboard the motor vehicles, tram, etc. to take the measures referred to in paragraph (1) or make the report referred to in paragraph (2), and then continue to drive such motor vehicles, tram, etc. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(6) When any traffic accident occurs, police officers (excluding any autonomous police officer) shall take necessary measures, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 55 (Prohibition on Hindering Measures Taken When Accident Occurs)
In case where any traffic accident occurs, no one shall hinder measures taken by the driver, etc. or the making of the reporting under Article 54 (1) and (2).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 56 (Obligations of Employers, etc.)
(1) A person who employs drivers of motor vehicles or trams, a person in charge of the management of drivers, motors vehicles or trams, or users of motor vehicles or trams (including a person who rents a motor vehicle for business use under the Passenger Transport Service Act and a person who rents a motor vehicle under the Specialized Credit Finance Business Act; hereinafter referred to as "employer, etc.") shall always call the attentions of such drivers for the observance of this Act and any order issued under this Act and shall supervise them. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) Where an employer, etc. knows that any driver prohibited from driving any motor vehicle, etc. or tram pursuant to Articles 43 through 45 is trying to drive a motor vehicle, etc. or tram, he/she shall not neglect to prevent such driver from driving nor allow such driver to drive any motor vehicle, etc. or tram. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER V SPECIAL EXAMPLES OF EXPRESSWAYS AND EXCLUSIVE ROADS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES
 Article 57 (Common Provisions)
Methods, etc. for motor vehicles or pedestrians to cross on expressways or exclusive roads for motor vehicles (hereinafter referred to as "expressways, etc.") shall be governed by this Chapter, and matters other than those prescribed in this Chapter shall be governed by Chapters I through IV.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 58 (Measures Taken to Prevent Danger, etc.)
When the traffic of any expressway, etc. is likely to be dangerous or congested due to the damage of any road, the occurrence of any traffic accident and other circumstances, police officers (excluding any autonomous police officer) shall prohibit or restrict the traffic flow of motor vehicles that are travelling on such expressway, etc. within the necessary range or order drivers of motor vehicles to take necessary measures in order to prevent any traffic danger or any traffic congestion and ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic thereon.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 59 (Installation and Management of Traffic Safety Facilities)
(1) A manager of an expressway shall install and manage traffic safety facilities in order to prevent any danger on such expressway and to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic thereon. In such cases, the manager of each expressway shall consult with the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency thereabout, when he/she intends to install such traffic safety facilities.
(2) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may instruct the manager of every expressway about matters necessary to manage traffic safety facilities.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 60 (Prohibition, etc. against Traffic of Roadside)
(1) The driver of every motor vehicle shall drive his/her motor vehicle along lanes prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, except where prevented from doing so due to inevitable reasons, such as the breakdown of his/her motor vehicle on the expressway, etc. and other inevitable circumstances, and shall not drive his/her motor vehicle on the roadside (referring to the shoulder provided for in the Road Act): Provided, That the same shall not apply where any emergency motor vehicle is driven and any motor vehicle used to repair and maintain, etc. the expressway, etc. is driven. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) When intending to overtake any other motor vehicle on the expressway, the driver of any motor vehicle shall safely drive the motor vehicle along a lane prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety by using direction indicators, lights, or horn. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 61 (Marking of Exclusive Lane on Expressway)
(1) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may, when it is especially necessary to ensure the smooth flow of traffic of the expressway, mark an exclusive lane on the expressway.
(2) Article 15 (2) and (3) shall apply mutatis mutandis to the types, etc. of exclusive lanes of the expressway referred to in paragraph (1).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 62 (Prohibition on Crossing, etc.)
The driver of any motor vehicle shall not cross an expressway, etc., making a U-turn, or moving in reverse on an expressway while driving a motor vehicle on the expressway: Provided, That the same shall not apply to any motor vehicle that is used to take emergency measures aimed at preventing and removing danger on an expressway and taking and performing emergency measures and the work relating to any traffic accident on the expressway among emergency motor vehicles or motor vehicles to perform the work of repair and maintenance, etc. of the road.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 63 (Prohibition on Traffic, etc.)
A rider of any horse other than motor vehicles (two-wheeled vehicles are limited to emergency motor vehicles) or any pedestrian shall be prohibited from riding his/her horse or walking any expressway or crossing any expressway.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 64 (Prohibition on Stopping and Parking Motor Vehicles on Expressway, etc.)
The driver of any motor vehicle shall not park or stop a motor vehicle on any expressway, etc.: Provided, That the same shall not apply to cases falling under any of the following subparagraphs:
1. Where the driver temporarily stops or parks a motor vehicle in compliance with the provisions of statutes or instructions given by police officers (excluding any autonomous police officer) or in order to prevent any danger;
2. Where the driver stops or parks a motor vehicle in a place where safety signs are erected in order to permit motor vehicles to stop or park, or in the depot;
3. Where the driver stops or parks a motor vehicle on the edge area of a road (including the roadside) due to breakdown or other inevitable reasons;
4. Where the driver stops a motor vehicle to pay a toll at a tollgate;
5. Where the manager of a road stops or parks a motor vehicle in order to repair, maintain or patrol the expressway, etc.;
6. Where any police emergency motor vehicle stops or parks a motor vehicle in order to investigate any crime, regulate the traffic and perform other police duties;
7. Where the driver temporarily stops or parks a motor vehicle on an expressway, etc. when the driver cannot drive the motor vehicle due to traffic congestion or other inevitable reasons.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 65 (Priority Order for Access to Expressway)
(1) When intending to drive a motor vehicle onto an expressway, the driver of any motor vehicle (excluding any emergency motor vehicle) shall not impede the traffic of other motor vehicles traveling on the expressway.
(2) When any emergency motor vehicle is entering an expressway, no driver of any motor vehicle shall impede the emergency motor vehicle's access to the expressway.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 66 (Measures Taken for Breakdown, etc.)
When the driver of any motor vehicle is unable to drive a motor vehicle due to breakdown or inevitability on an expressway, etc., the driver shall display a sign (hereinafter referred to as "vehicle break-down sign") prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety and then take measures to relocate his/her motor vehicle to a place out of the expressway, etc. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 67 (Matters to be Observed by Drivers on Expressway, etc.)
(1) Deleted. <by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) The driver of any motor vehicle that travels on an expressway, etc. shall always carry a break-down sign provided for in Article 66 in order to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic. When the driver finds it difficult to drive his/her motor vehicle due to breakdown or other inevitable reasons, the driver shall stop the motor vehicle on the right-hand edge of the road and then display the break-down sign, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER VI USE OF ROADS
 Article 68 (Prohibited Conduct, etc. on Roads)
(1) No one shall operate signal apparatuses, or remove, relocate, or damage traffic safety facilities, or install traffic safety facilities or other artificial structures similar thereto on any road without permission therefor.
(2) No one shall leave articles on the road which impede the traffic flow of the road without permission therefor.
(3) No one shall perform any of the following activities:
1. Wandering on a road while intoxicated;
2. Lying, sitting, or standing on a road in a manner that impedes the traffic flow on the road;
3. Playing with a ball or riding on a sled on the busy road;
4. Throwing or projecting any stone, glass bottle, iron scrap, or article likely to cause damage to any motor vehicle or horse;
5. Throwing articles from any motor vehicle or horse traveling along a road;
6. Jumping onto, clinging to, or jumping from any motor vehicle or horse traveling along a road;
7. Any other activity designated and published by the commissioner of a district police agency after deeming necessary to prevent danger to traffic.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 69 (Reporting on Roadwork and Safety Measures, etc.)
(1) Anyone who intends to perform the work of digging, drilling, etc. the road (hereafter in this Article, referred to as "work contractor") in compliance with any order issued by a road management agency or road works agency shall report the date, the section, the work period, the manner in which the work is to be performed, and other necessary matters, to the chief of the relevant police station three days before commencing the works: Provided, That where necessary to perform any emergency work following a landslide, rupture of water mains, etc., such person shall take safety measures therefor and report thereon without delay after commencing the work.
(2) When the chief of a police station determines that the traffic congestion in the area surrounding a construction site greatly increases at an unanticipated level, which is likely to seriously hamper the safety and smooth control of the traffic, he/she may get the relevant work contractor referred to in paragraph (1) to shorten his/her work hours and take other necessary measures, etc. after pre-consulting thereabout with the road management agency.
(3) When necessary to control the traffic flow of motor vehicles and horses and give instructions, etc. during the work period, a work contractor shall install traffic safety facilities in compliance with the instructions given by the chief of the competent police station.
(4) A work contractor shall, when his/her work damages traffic safety facilities, reinstate the damaged traffic safety facilities, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, and then report the results thereof to the chief of the competent police station. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 70 (Notification, etc. of Permission, etc. for Occupation and Use of Road)
(1) When a road management agency has performed any of the following acts on a road, it shall immediately notify the details thereof to the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency in cases of expressways and to the chief of the competent police station in cases of roads, other than expressways: <Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011; Act No. 12248, Jan. 14, 2014>
1. Permission for occupying and using the road provided for in Article 61 of the Road Act;
2. Prohibition against or restrictions on traffic flow provided for in Article 76 of the Road Act or restrictions on driving motor vehicles provided for in Article 77 of the same Act.
(2) Deleted. <by Act No. 8736, Dec. 21, 2007>
(3) When deemed necessary to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic, the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency or the chief of the competent police station in receipt of notification under paragraph (1) may request the road management agency to take necessary measures therefor. In such cases, the road management agency shall take such measures, except in extenuating circumstances. <Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011>
 Article 71 (Measures against Artificial Structures Illegally Installed on Road)
(1) The chief of a police station may order any of the following persons to correct the person's violation or remove the traffic impediment caused by the person's violation: <Amended by Act No. 12248, Jan. 14, 2014>
1. Any person who has installed traffic safety facilities or other artificial structures similar thereto without obtaining permission therefor, in violation of Article 68 (1);
2. Any person who has abandoned things on the road, in violation of Article 68 (2);
3. Any person who has installed artificial structures, etc. or performed any works that could impede traffic flow, in violation of Article 61 of the Road Act.
(2) The chief of a police station shall, when he/she is unable to order measures referred to in paragraph (1) because he/she is unable to identify the name and domicile of any person specified under paragraph (1), keep the artificial structures, etc. in custody after taking measures to remove such artificial structures, etc. by himself/herself. In such cases, the artificial structures, etc. that are likely to be worn out or destroyed and the custody of which is extremely difficult to accomplish may be sold and their sale proceeds may be kept in custody.
(3) Matters necessary for the custody, sale, etc. of artificial structures, etc. referred to in paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 72 (Measures Taken to Prevent Danger of Ground Artificial Structures, etc. Installed on Road)
(1) When ground artificial structures, other facilities, or articles of the road are causing danger to traffic or are obviously likely to cause impediment to traffic, the chief of a police station shall request the owner, occupier, or manager of such artificial structures, etc. to remove them or order them to take measures necessary for traffic safety.
(2) When the chief of a police station is unable to order the owner, occupier, or manager of artificial structures, etc. to take measures pursuant to paragraph (1) because he/she is unable to identify their names and domiciles, he/she shall keep the artificial structures, etc. in custody after taking measures to remove them by himself/herself. In such cases, the artificial structures, etc. that are likely to be worn out or destroyed and the custody of which is extremely difficult to maintain may be sold and their sale proceeds may be kept in custody.
(3) Necessary matters concerning the custody, sale, etc. of artificial structures, etc. referred to in paragraph (2) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER VII TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION
 Article 73 (Traffic Safety Education)
(1) Anyone who intends to obtain a driver's license shall undergo traffic safety education regarding each of the following matters before applying for an examination provided for in Article 83 (1) 2 and 3, as prescribed by Presidential Decree: Provided, That the same shall not apply to anyone who has received mandatory special traffic safety education pursuant to paragraph (2) 1 or has completed the driving education in a specialized driving school provided for in Article 104 (1): <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Basic manners for drivers;
2. Statutes and knowledge governing road and traffic;
3. Skills needed to drive motor vehicles safely;
3-2. Matters concerning the prevention and settlement of traffic accidents;
4. Matters concerning the prevention of traffic accidents of children, persons with disabilities, and older persons;
5. Knowledge and skills needed for eco-driving;
6. Gist of making way for an emergency motor vehicle;
7. Other matters necessary to ensure the safety of traffic.
(2) Any of the following persons shall receive mandatory special traffic safety education, as prescribed by Presidential Decree. In such cases, he/she may be allowed to postpone such mandatory education, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, if he/she falls under subparagraphs 2 through 4 and is in unavoidable circumstances: <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
1. Any person who intends to re-obtain a driver's license after having been subject to a disposition to revoke his/her driver's license (excluding a person subject to a disposition to revoke his/her driver's license by falling under Article 93 (1) 9 or 20);
2. Any person subject to or to be subject to a disposition to suspend the effect of his/her driver's license by falling under Article 93 (1) 1, 5, 5-2, 10, and 10-2, for whom the period of suspension has not yet lapsed;
3. Any person exempted from a disposition to revoke his/her driver’s license or suspend the effect of his/her driver’s license (limited to where a person is subject to a disposition to suspend the effect of his/her driver’s license by falling under Article 93 (1) 1, 5, 5-2, 10, and 10-2), for whom one month has not elapsed from the date of such exemption;
4. Any novice driver subject or to be subject to a disposition to suspend the effect of his/her driver's license and for whom the period of suspension has yet to lapse;
5. Deleted. <by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
(3) Where any of the following persons files an application with the commissioner of a district police agency, he/she may receive recommended special traffic safety education, as prescribed by Presidential Decree. In such cases, this shall be limited to a person who has not received such recommended education within one year before he/she receives it: <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
1. A person subject to or to be subject to a disposition to suspend the effect of his/her driver’s license on other grounds than those referred to in paragraph (2) 2 and 4, including the violation of traffic laws and regulations;
2. A person who is likely to be subject to a disposition to suspend the effect of his/her driver’s license due to the violation of traffic laws and regulations, etc.;
3. A person who has received the mandatory special traffic safety education under paragraph (2) by falling under paragraph (2) 2 through 4;
4. A person who is 65 years of age or older on the date he/she intends to receive education, from among persons who have obtained a driver’s license.
(4) Any person driving an emergency motor vehicle, who is prescribed by Presidential Decree, shall receive education regarding the safe operation, etc. of emergency motor vehicles regularly as prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
(5) Any person who is 75 years of age or older and intends to obtain a driver’s license shall undergo traffic safety education regarding each of the following matters before applying for an examination provided for in Article 83 (1) 2 and 3, and any person who is 75 years of age or older on the date of renewal of his/her driver’s license shall undergo such education within the renewal period of his/her driver’s license: <Newly Inserted by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Matters concerning aging and safe driving;
2. Matters concerning drugs and driving;
3. Matters concerning coping with driving according to cognitive ability, such as memory and judgment;
4. Matters concerning the understanding of traffic-related statutes.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 74 (Designation, etc. of Traffic Safety Educational Institutions)
(1) Traffic safety education (hereinafter referred to as "traffic safety education") that anyone who intends to obtain a driver's license has to receive pursuant to Article 73 (1) shall be conducted by a specialized driving school provided for in Article 104 (1) and institutions or establishments designated by the commissioner of a district police agency pursuant to paragraph (2).
(2) When any of the following institutions or establishments which meet the requirements for facilities, equipment, instructors, etc. prescribed by Presidential Decree files an application for its designation for conducting traffic safety education, the commissioner of a district police agency may designate such institution or establishment as an institution that may conduct traffic safety education (hereinafter referred to as "traffic safety educational institution"):
1. A driving school provided for in Article 99;
2. The Road Traffic Safety Authority and the branch offices, sub-branch offices, and educational institutions thereof provided for in Articles 120 and 121;
3. An establishment attached to any university, which offers lifelong education curriculum provided for in Article 30 (2) of the Lifelong Education Act;
4. Any educational establishment operated by Jeju Special Self-Governing Province or a Si/Gun/autonomous Gu.
(3) When designating any traffic safety educational institution pursuant to paragraph (2), the commissioner of a district police agency shall issue a designation certificate prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) No commissioner of a district police agency shall designate any of the following institutions or establishments as a traffic safety educational institution:
1. An institution or establishment established and operated by anyone who has established and operated a traffic safety educational institution, the designation of which has been revoked pursuant to Article 79, within three years from the date such designation has been revoked;
2. An institution or establishment established and operated in the same place within three years from the date the designation thereof has been revoked pursuant to Article 79.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 75 (Persons in Charge of Operation of Traffic Safety Educational Institutions)
(1) When deemed necessary to efficiently manage educational affairs, the head of any traffic safety educational institution may appoint a person to be in charge of the operation of the traffic safety educational institution from among employees (excluding any instructor in charge of traffic safety education under Article 76 (1)) who work for the institution.
(2) The head of any traffic safety educational institution (when the head of any traffic safety educational institution appoints a person to be in charge of the operation of the traffic safety educational institution pursuant to paragraph (1), referring to the person in charge of the operation of the traffic safety institution; hereinafter the same shall apply) shall guide and supervise instructors in charge of the traffic safety education (hereinafter referred to as "instructors in charge of traffic safety education") and manage traffic safety educational affairs in order to ensure the fairness of its traffic safety educational affairs.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 76 (Qualifying Standards, etc. for Instructors in Charge of Traffic Safety Education)
(1) Every traffic safety educational institution shall employ instructors in charge of traffic safety education.
(2) Instructors in charge of traffic safety education referred to in paragraph (1) shall be any of the following:
1. Persons who hold certificates of qualifications as instructors for driving education, as delivered by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency pursuant to Article 106 (2);
2. Persons who have been engaged in administrative affairs or educational affairs involving road and traffic for at least two years and who have received education of qualifications as instructors in charge of traffic safety education prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) None of the following persons can become an instructor in charge of traffic safety education:
1. A person who is younger than 20;
2. A person for whom two years have not elapsed since his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court for violating Article 3 (1) of the Act on Special Cases concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents or Article 5-3 of the Act on the Aggravated Punishment, etc. of Specific Crimes was not completely executed or exempted;
3. A person who is under suspension of the execution of his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court for violating Article 3 (1) of the Act on Special Cases concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents or Article 5-3 of the Act on the Aggravated Punishment, etc. of Specific Crimes;
4. A person who fails to obtain a driver's licence that makes it possible for him/her to drive any motor vehicle, or who is a novice driver.
(4) No head of any traffic safety educational institution shall allow anyone who is not a instructor in charge of traffic safety education to educate prospective drivers in traffic safety.
(5) When statutes governing roads and traffic are amended and it is deemed necessary to efficiently provide traffic safety education, the commissioner of a district police agency may provide training and education for instructors in charge of traffic safety education, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(6) Where instructors in charge of traffic safety education must undergo training and education pursuant to paragraph (5), the head of any traffic safety educational institution shall take measures to cause them to undergo such training and education, except in extenuating circumstances.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 77 (Confirmation of Participation, etc. in Traffic Safety Education)
(1) When persons who intend to obtain a driver's license complete traffic safety education pursuant to Article 73 (1), instructors in charge of traffic safety education shall report details of each person's participation in traffic safety education to the head of the relevant traffic safety educational institution.
(2) Upon receiving a report referred to in paragraph (1), the head of any traffic safety educational institution shall issue a certificate of confirmation of education to each of the participants in the education meeting the standards prescribed by Presidential Decree and then report without delay such fact to the commissioner of the competent district police agency.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 78 (Reporting on Suspension or Discontinuation of Operation of Traffic Safety Educational Institutions)
When the head of a traffic safety educational institution intends to suspend or discontinue the operation of the traffic safety educational institution for at least one month, he/she shall report thereon to the commissioner of the competent district police agency by seven days before the date the head intends to suspend or discontinue the operation of the traffic safety educational institution, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 79 (Revocation of Designation, etc. of Traffic Safety Educational Institutions)
(1) When a traffic safety educational institution falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency shall revoke the designation thereof or order it to suspend the operation thereof by fixing a period not exceeding one year, according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That where it falls under subparagraph 3, he/she shall revoke the designation thereof: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. When a traffic safety educational institution fails to make a correction within 30 days from the date it receives a corrective order due to its non-compliance with the standards for designation provided for in Article 74 (2);
2. When the head of a traffic safety educational institution fails to take measures to cause instructors of traffic safety education to undergo training and education, in violation of Article 76 (6);
3. When the head of a traffic safety educational institution issues a certificate of confirmation of education to anyone who fails to complete traffic safety educational courses, in violation of Article 77 (2);
4. When the head of a traffic safety educational institution fails to submit materials or make a report, or submits false materials or makes a false report, in violation of Article 141 (2);
5. When the head of a traffic safety educational institution refuses, impedes, or evades the access and inspection by relevant public officials, in violation of Article 141 (2).
(2) Where a traffic safety educational institution continues operating business, in violation of orders to suspend the operation thereof pursuant to paragraph (1), the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke the designation thereof, according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER VIII DRIVERS' LICENSES
 Article 80 (Drivers' Licenses)
(1) Anyone who intends to drive a motor vehicle, etc. shall obtain a driver's license from the commissioner of a district police agency: Provided, That the same shall not apply where a person with a mobility disadvantage defined in subparagraph 1 of Article 2 of the Act on Promotion of the Transportation Convenience of Mobility Disadvantaged Persons drives a vehicle that can move up to 20 kilometers an hour among vehicles equipped with a motor defined in subparagraph 19 (b) of Article 2.
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency shall classify the scope of drivers' licenses as follows, based on the types of motor vehicles that can be driven, and manage such drivers' licenses by scope. In such cases, the types of motor vehicles that can be driven, based on such scope of the drivers' licenses, shall be determined by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Class I drivers' licenses:
(a) Drivers' licenses for large motor vehicles;
(b) Drivers' license for ordinary motor vehicles;
(c) Drivers' licenses for small motor vehicles;
(d) Drivers' licenses for special motor vehicles:
(i) Drivers' licenses for large towing vehicles;
(ii) Drivers' licenses for small towing vehicles;
(iii) Drivers' licenses for recovery vehicles;
2. Class II drivers' licenses:
(a) Drivers' licenses for ordinary motor vehicles;
(b) Drivers' licenses for small motor vehicles;
(c) Drivers' licenses for motorcycles;
3. Student licenses:
(a) Class I ordinary student licenses;
(b) Class II ordinary student licenses.
(3) The commissioner of a district police agency may attach necessary conditions prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, including restrictions on the structures of motor vehicles that can be driven, etc., according to the physical conditions or driving skills of persons entitled to drivers' licenses. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) The commissioner of a district police agency may set additional conditions or alter the conditions referred to in paragraph (3) according to the physical conditions or driving skills of persons who have taken aptitude tests pursuant to Articles 87 and 89.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 81 (Effect of Student Licenses)
A student license shall be effective for one year from the date on which such student license is obtained: Provided, That where anyone who has obtained a student license obtains a Class I driver's license or a Class II driver's license, such student license shall become ineffective even if one year has elapsed from the date such license has been issued.
 Article 82 (Grounds of Disqualification for Drivers' Licenses)
(1) Any of the following persons shall be disqualified from obtaining a driver's license: <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14266, May 29, 2016>
1. A person younger than 18 years of age (in cases of a motorcycle, referring to a person younger than 16);
2. A person determined by Presidential Decree as being a mentally-disordered person or an epilepsy patient who may cause any danger or impediment to traffic;
3. The deaf (limited to licenses for large motor vehicles and licenses for special motor vehicles, among Class I drivers' licenses), the blind (in cases of persons who have lost the sight of only one eye, limited to licenses for large motor vehicles and licenses for special motor vehicles, among Class I drivers' licenses), or the physically handicapped determined by Presidential Decree;
4. A person who has lost the parts under the elbow joints of both arms or the person who is unable to use both arms: Provided, That the same shall not apply where anyone can normally drive a motor vehicle manufactured to meet the needs of that person's physical handicap;
5. A person determined by Presidential Decree as being addicted to narcotics, marijuana, psychotropic drugs, or alcoholism, which may cause any danger or impediment to traffic;
6. A person who intends to obtain a Class I driver' license for a large motor vehicle or special motor vehicle, who is younger than 19 years of age or with less than one year's experience in driving a motor vehicle (excluding any two-wheeled vehicle).
(2) None of the following persons shall obtain a driver's license, unless the period set in the relevant subparagraph has lapsed: Provided, That where he/she is given a final sentence that is less severe than a fine or a sentence suspension, or where he/she is suspended of indictment or subject to a decision of protective detention under Article 32 of the Juvenile Act on any of the following grounds, he/she may obtain a driver's license even during the period prescribed in the relevant subparagraph: <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
1. Where a person drives a motor vehicle, etc. in violation of Article 43 or 96 (3), one year (or six months where the driver intends to obtain a driver's license for a motorcycle and one year from the date of such violation in cases of violation of Article 46) from the date of such violation (where the driver's license is revoked on the grounds that the driver drives a motor vehicle in the period during which the effect of the driver's license is suspended, the date the driver's license is revoked; hereafter in this Article the same shall apply): Provided, That where the driver fails to take necessary measures under Article 54 (1) and to report under Article 54 (2) after killing or injuring any other person, five years from the date of such violation;
2. Where a person drives a motor vehicle, etc. in violation of Article 43 or 96 (3) at least three times, two years from the date of such violation;
3. Where a person fails to take measures or report under Article 54 (1) and (2) after killing or injuring any other person in violation of Article 44, 45, or 46, five years from the date the driver's license is revoked;
4. Where a person fails to take measures or report under Article 54 (1) and (2) after killing or injuring any other person on grounds, other than those specified in Articles 43 through 46, four years from the date the driver's license is revoked;
5. Where a person causes a traffic accident at least three times while driving a motor vehicle while intoxicated in violation of Article 44 (1) or (2) (including where Article 43 or 96 (3) is violated simultaneously), three years from the date the driver's license is revoked (where Article 43 or 96 (3) is violated simultaneously, referring to the date of such violation) and where a person who commits any crime using a motor vehicle, etc., steals another person's motor vehicle, etc., or robs another person of his/her motor vehicle, etc., drives the motor vehicle in violation of Article 43, three years from the date of such violation;
6. Where the driver's license of a person is revoked for violating Article 44 (1) or (2) at least three times (including where Article 43 or 96 (3) is violated simultaneously) or Article 46 at least twice (including where Article 43 or 96 (3) is violated simultaneously) or the driver's license is revoked on any ground specified in Article 93 (1) 8, 12, or 13, two years from the date the driver's license is revoked (where Article 43 or 96 (3) is violated simultaneously, referring to the date of such violation);
7. Where the driver's license of a person is revoked on grounds, other than cases specified in subparagraphs 1 through 6, one year (or six months where he/she intends to obtain a deriver's license for a motorcycle and one year from the date the driver's license is revoked in violation of Article 46) from the date the driver's license is revoked: Provided, That the same shall not apply where any person whose driver's license is revoked on any ground specified in Article 93 (1) 9 or any person with a Class I driver's license reattempts to obtain a Class II driver's license after failing to pass the aptitude test;
8. Where a person remains subject to a disposition to suspend the effects of the driver's license, the period of such suspension.
(3) Notwithstanding the lapse of the disqualification period for a driver's license referred to in paragraph (2), anyone subject to a disposition to revoke his/her driver's license pursuant to Article 93 shall not obtain a driver's license, if he/she fails to receive the mandatory special traffic safety education under Article 73 (2) after being subject to the relevant disposition. <Amended by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 83 (Driver's License Tests, etc.)
(1) The driver's license tests (excluding a test for Class I ordinary driver's license and a test for Class II ordinary driver's license) shall be held by the Road Traffic Authority established pursuant to Article 120 on any of the following matters according to the classification of driver's licenses under Article 80 (2): Provided, That the driver's licence tests prescribed by Presidential Decree shall be held by the commissioner of a district police agency or the Road Traffic Authority, as prescribed by Presidential Decree:
1. The aptitude needed to drive motor vehicles, etc.;
2. The knowledge on statutes governing motor vehicles, etc. and road and traffic;
3. The methods needed to manage motor vehicles, etc. and the art needed to check motor vehicles in order to ensure safe traffic;
4. The skills needed to drive motor vehicles, etc.;
5. Knowledge and skills needed for Eco-driving.
(2) Tests for Class I ordinary drivers' licenses and tests for Class II ordinary drivers' licenses shall be held by the Road Traffic Authority in order to test abilities of the test applicant to drive motor vehicles on the road. In such cases, tests for Class I ordinary drivers' licenses shall be held for persons who have received Class I ordinary student licenses and tests for Class II ordinary drivers' licenses shall be held for persons who have received Class II ordinary student licenses, respectively.
(3) Anyone ineligible to receive a driver's license pursuant to Article 82 may not apply for a driver's license test.
(4) Any person who intends to apply for a driver's license test pursuant to paragraph (1) 2 and 3 shall receive traffic safety education provided for in Article 73 (1) or education of curricula in a driving school provided for in Article 104 (1) before he/she applies for such driver's license test.
(5) Methods, procedures, and other necessary matters concerning the driver's license tests referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 84 (Exemption from Driver's License Tests)
(1) Any of the following persons shall be exempted from part of a driver's licence test, as prescribed by Presidential Decree: <Amended by Act No. 11298, Feb. 10, 2012; Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
1. Any person who has graduated from the mechanic engineering department or the department of automotive mechanics of any university, any specialized college, or any technical engineering high school after completing subjects on motor vehicles;
2. Any person who has passed a technical qualification examination for the repair and inspection of motor vehicles provided for in Article 10 of the National Technical Qualifications Act;
3. Any of the following persons who hold a driver's licence that has been issued by an authoritative institution of a foreign country (hereinafter referred to as "foreign driver's license"):
(a) Any person who completes the registration for residency pursuant to Article 6 of the Resident Registration Act;
(b) Any person registered as a foreigner pursuant to Article 31 of the Immigration Act (hereinafter referred to as "registered foreigner") or any person exempted from being registered as a foreigner;
(c) Any person recognized as a refugee pursuant to the Refugee Act;
(d) Any person who reports his/her residency in the Republic of Korea pursuant to Article 6 of the Act on the Immigration and Legal Status of Overseas Koreans (hereinafter referred to as "foreign nationality Korean");
4. Any person who has driven a military motor vehicle that corresponds to a motor vehicle, etc. while serving in the military for at least six months;
5. Any person who intends to receive a driver's license again after his/her driver's license has been revoked due to a failure to undergo an aptitude test pursuant to Article 87 (2) or 88;
6. Any person who intends to include the type of motor vehicle that he/she can drive according to the classification provided for in Article 80 (2) after receiving a driver's license;
7. Any person who intends to receive a driver's license again after his/her driver's license has been revoked pursuant to Article 93 (1) 15 through 18;
8. Any person who holds a completion certificate or graduation certificate issued by a specialized driving school pursuant to Article 108 (5);
9. Any person recognized as having received a driver's license in the northern area of the demilitarized zone.
(2) With respect to persons who hold foreign drivers' licenses referred to in paragraph (1) 3 (referring to drivers' licenses obtained while residing in foreign countries for at least 90 days, which deliver their drivers' licenses and their drivers' licenses are neither temporary drivers' licenses nor drivers' licenses for driving practice), an exception from a driver's license test may be prescribed otherwise as prescribed by Presidential Decree, depending on whether the relevant foreign countries exempt persons who hold drivers' licences of the Republic of Korea from the driver's licence test, with the exception of the aptitude test (hereafter in this Article, referred to as "countries that recognize Korean drivers' licences"): Provided, That foreign drivers' licenses held by foreigners residing in the Republic of Korea for purposes prescribed by Presidential Decree, such as diplomacy, official business, or research, shall be deemed drivers' licenses issued by authoritative institutions of foreign countries that recognize Korean drivers' licenses and with respect to any foreign country that has concluded an agreement with the Republic of Korea on the mutual recognition of the drivers' licences among foreign countries that recognize Korean drivers' licenses, the driver may be exempted partially from the license test according to the terms of such agreement.
(3) When issuing a Korean driver's license to any foreigner who holds a foreign driver's license after exempting the foreigner from part of the driver's license test pursuant to paragraphs (1) 3 and (2), the Road Traffic Authority shall retrieve the foreign driver's license. In such cases, at the request of the relevant agency which has issued the foreign driver’s license, the Authority may send the foreign driver's license to the relevant country.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 84-2 (Measures against Cheaters)
(1) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall invalidate the result of the relevant examination taken by a person who has cheated in an instructor qualification examination referred to in Article 106 or an examination for qualifying as a skill examiner referred to in Article 107, and the commissioner of a district police agency or the Road Traffic Safety Authority shall invalidate the result of the relevant examination taken by a person who has cheated in a driver's license test referred to in Article 83, respectively.
(2) A person whose result of an examination becomes invalidated pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be prohibited from taking the relevant examination for two years from the imposition date of such disposition.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016]
 Article 85 (Issuance, etc. of Drivers' Licenses)
(1) Each person who intends to receive a driver's license shall pass a driver's license test.
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency shall issue a driver's license prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety to each person who passes a driver's license test. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) Where a person who has received a driver's license obtains any additional driver's license, the scope of which is different from the one he/she has received, the commissioner of a district police agency shall issue a driver's license by expanding the scope of his/her driver's license (referring to making an addition to the scope of the existing driver's license already received). <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(4) Where a person who has received a driver's license intends to have the scope of his/her driver's license reduced (referring to removing a scope from the existing scope of the driver's license already received), the commissioner of a district police agency may issue a driver's license by reducing the scope of his/her driver's license. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
(5) Each driver's license shall take effect from the time when the principal or his/her agent is issued the driver's license under paragraphs (2) through (4). In such cases, even when the scope of a driver's license is expanded or reduced under paragraph (3) or (4), the effect of revocation or suspension of the relevant driver's license and the demerit points received or to be received under Article 93 shall be succeeded intactly. <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 86 (Re-Issuance of Drivers' Licenses)
When a person loses his/her driver's license or the driver's license is worn out, he/she may file an application with the commissioner of a district police agency for the re-issuance of a driver's license, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 87 (Renewal of Drivers' Licenses and Regular Aptitude Tests)
(1) Each person who has obtained a driver's license shall receive such driver's license renewed by the commissioner of a district police agency, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, within the period classified as follows: <Amended by Act No. 14266, May 29, 2016; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. The first renewal period for driver's license is from January 1 through December 31 of the year to which the date ten years (or five years for a person who is 65 years of age or older but younger than 75 years of age on the date he/she passes the driver's license test, three years for a person who is 75 years of age or older on such date, and three years for a person who obtains the driver's license for ordinary motor vehicles among Class I drivers' licenses as a person who has lost the sight of only one eye) elapse from the date reckoned from when he/she passes the driver's license test under Article 83 (1) or (2) belongs;
2. The renewal period for driver's license, other than the first renewal period for driver's license referred to in subparagraph 1, is from January 1 through December 31 of the year to which the date every ten years (or five years for a person who is 65 years of age or older but younger than 75 years of age on the immediately preceding renewal date, three years for a person who is 75 years of age or older on such date, and three years for a person who obtains the driver's license for ordinary motor vehicles among Class I drivers' licenses as a person who has lost the sight of only one eye) elapse from the immediately preceding renewal date for driver's license belongs.
(2) Any of the following persons shall take a regular aptitude test held by the Road Traffic Authority, within the renewal period for driver's license under paragraph (1), as prescribed by Presidential Decree:
1. A person who has obtained a Class I driver's license;
2. A person who is 70 years of age or older during the renewal period for driver's license from among those who have a Class II driver's license.
(3) No person who falls under the following subparagraphs shall receive his/her driver's license renewed: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. A person who has failed to undergo traffic safety education under Article 73 (5);
2. A person who has failed to take or pass a regular aptitude test under paragraph (2).
(4) When a person obliged to receive a renewed driver's license or take a regular aptitude test pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) fails to have his/her driver's license renewed and issued or undergo the regular aptitude test within the fixed period due to overseas travel or military service or other reasons prescribed by Presidential Decree, such person may receive the renewed driver's license or take the regular aptitude test beforehand or may have the relevant period extended, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 87-2 (Verification of Identities of Persons to whom Drivers' Licenses are to be Issued)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency who intends to issue a driver's license pursuant to Article 85 (2) through (4), 86, or 87 (1) (hereafter referred to as "issuance of a driver's license" in this Article and Article 137-2 (2)), may verify the identity of the person who intends to be issued a driver's license through the relevant person's resident registration number, passport, photograph of an identification card, etc. prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) Where it is difficult to verify the identity of the person in question by the method prescribed in paragraph (1), the commissioner of a district police agency may verify it by comparing the fingerprint information with consent from the person who intends to be issued a driver's license.
(3) Where a person who intends to be issued a driver's license fails to comply with the procedures for verifying his/her identity prescribed in paragraph (2), the commissioner of a district police agency may refuse to issue his/her driver's license.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016]
 Article 88 (Occasional Aptitude Tests)
(1) When anyone who has obtained a Class I driver's license or a Class II driver's license (including anyone who has obtained an international driver's license as provided for in Article 96 (1)) falls under the grounds prescribed by Presidential Decree, such as postnatal disability that impedes the safe driving of a motor vehicle, he/she shall take an occasional aptitude test held by the Road Traffic Authority.
(2) The period for occasional aptitude tests, notices and other necessary matters concerning the holding of occasional aptitude tests referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 89 (Notification of Personal Information Pertaining to Occasional Aptitude Tests)
(1) The head of the agency prescribed by Presidential Decree who shall notify personal information pertaining to the postnatal physical disability, etc. of a person who is required to take an occasional aptitude test under Article 88 (1) shall notify the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency of such personal information pertaining to occasional aptitude tests.
(2) The details of the personal information to be notified to the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency pursuant to paragraph (1), methods of notification and other necessary matters concerning the notification of personal information shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 90 (Measures Taken for Persons Suspected of Suffering from Mental Illness, etc.)
Where there exist reasonable grounds that anyone falling under any of the following subparagraphs falls under Article 82 (1) 2 and 5, the Road Traffic Authority may arrange for any medical specialist to perform a precise diagnosis of such person:
1. A person who undergoes the driver's license test under Article 83;
2. A person who takes the aptitude test under Article 87 (2) or Article 88 (1).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 91 (Temporary Driving Certificates)
(1) When any of the following persons applies for the issuance of a temporary driving certificate, the commissioner of a district police agency may issue such temporary driving certificate to the applicant, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That in cases falling under subparagraph 2, the commissioner of a district police agency may issue the driver's license in which the matters prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety are entered in lieu of issuing the temporary driving certificate: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a person who obtains a driver's license files an application for the re-issuance of a driver's license pursuant to Article 86;
2. Where a person applies for an aptitude test or the issuance of a renewed driver's license provided for in Article 87, or an occasional aptitude test provided for in Article 88;
3. Where a person subject to a disposition of revocation or suspension of his/her driver's license provided for in Article 93 submits his/her driver's license.
(2) Each temporary driving certificate referred to in paragraph (1) shall have the same effect as that of a driver's license during the period of its validity.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 92 (Duties to Carry and Produce Drivers' Licenses, etc.)
(1) The driver of a motor vehicle, etc. shall carry his/her driver's license, etc. falling under any of the following subparagraphs when he/she drives a motor vehicle:
1. A driver's license, or international driver's license as provided for in Article 96 (1) and the operator's license for construction machinery as provided for in the Construction Machinery Management Act (hereinafter referred to as "driver's license, etc.");
2. A certificate falling under any of the following items in lieu of the driver's license, etc:
(a) A temporary driving certificate as provided for in Article 91;
(b) A written notice pertaining to the payment of a penalty or a written summons as provided for in Article 138;
(c) A written summons as provided for in Article 143 (1).
(2) When a police officer requests a driver to produce his/her driver's license, etc. under paragraph (1) or a certificate in lieu thereof, or asks a question to confirm his/her identity or his/her driver's license for traffic safety or maintenance of traffic order, the driver shall comply with such request.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 93 (Revocation and Suspension of Drivers' Licenses)
(1) When a person who has obtained a driver's license (excluding any student license; hereafter in this Article, the same shall apply) falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke the driver's license (including the entire scope of drivers' licenses obtained by the driver; hereafter in this Article, the same shall apply) or suspend the effect thereof by up to one year according to the standards set by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That when such person falls under subparagraph 2, 3, 7 through 9 (excluding where the regular aptitude test period has lapsed), 14, 16 through 18, or 20, his/her driver's license shall be revoked: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. When any person drives a motor vehicle, etc. while intoxicated, in violation of Article 44 (1);
2. When a person who has violated Article 44 (1) or the latter part of Article 44 (2) at least twice (limited to cases of driving a motor vehicle, etc.; hereafter the same shall apply in this subparagraph and subparagraph 3), falls under the grounds for suspension of his/her driver's license for violating paragraph (1) of the same Article;
3. When a person fails to comply with a request for a breath alcohol testing from any police officer although the person is unquestionably believed to be driving a motor vehicle while intoxicated, in violation of the latter part of Article 44 (2);
4. When a person drives a motor vehicle, etc. although the person is likely to be unable to drive a motor vehicle, etc. normally on the grounds of being under the influence of drugs, in violation of Article 45;
5. When a person commits any dangerous collective conduct with others, in violation of Article 46 (1);
5-2. When a person recklessly drives a motor vehicle, in violation of Article 46-3;
6. When a person fails to take necessary measures or to report pursuant to Article 54 (1) or (2) after killing or injuring any other person in a traffic accident;
7. When a person is ineligible to obtain a driver's license pursuant to Article 82 (1) 2 through 5;
8. When a person ineligible to obtain a driver's license pursuant to Article 82 obtains a driver's license by fraud or other improper means or is found to have been issued a driver's license or other certificate in lieu of a driver's license in the period during which the effect of his/her driver's license is suspended;
9. When a person fails to take an aptitude test provided for in Article 87 (2) or 88 (1) or fails to pass such aptitude test;
10. When a person deliberately or negligently causes a traffic accident while driving a motor vehicle, etc.;
10-2. When a person who has obtained a driver's license commits an offense under Article 258-2, 261, 284, or 369 of the Criminal Act, by using a motor vehicle, etc.;
11. When a person who has obtained a driver's license commits any of the following crimes, by using a motor vehicle, etc. as the tool or place of the relevant crime:
(a) Any crime under Articles 4 through 9 of the National Security Act, or the crime of fabricating, destroying or concealing any evidence under Article 12 of the same Act;
(b) Any of the following crimes under the Criminal Act:
(i) Homicide, abandonment of a dead body, or arson;
(ii) Robbery, rape, or an indecent act by compulsion;
(iii) Kidnapping, abduction, or confinement;
(iv) Habitual larceny (limited to cases of transporting stolen goods);
(v) Obstruction of traffic (limited to a violation by the threat of collective force);?
12. When a person steals or robs another person's motor vehicle, etc.;
13. When a person applies for a driver's license test provided for in Article 83 in order to assist another person to illegally obtain a driver's license;
14. When a person assaults any police officer, etc. or any Si/Gun public official engaging in traffic patrol pursuant to this Act;
15. When a person lends his/her driver's license to any other person in order to enable the latter to drive a motor vehicle or uses the driver's license of any other person to drive a motor vehicle;
16. When a person drives any motor vehicle unregistered pursuant to the Motor Vehicle Management Act or any motor vehicle (excluding any two-wheeled vehicle) for which a temporary driving permission is not obtained;
17. When any ground for revoking a student license accrues before a person obtains a Class I or II ordinary driver's license;
18. When the head of any relevant administrative agency requests for disposition to revoke or suspend a driver's license pursuant to other Acts;
18-2. When a person drives a truck, in violation of Article 39 (1) or (4);
19. When a person violates this Act or any order issued or any disposition taken in accordance with this Act;
20. When a person returns, of his/her own will, his/her driver’s license to the commissioner of a district police agency for the lapse of the license: Provided, That this shall not apply where the said driver’s license is subject to a disposition of revocation or suspension, or is in the period of suspension of its effect.
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency may give demerit points to anyone who violates the Acts and regulations governing traffic, or who causes any traffic accident, according to the extent of the violation, the resulting damage, etc. as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety in order for such demerit points to be used as a basis for revoking drivers' licenses or suspending the effects of drivers' licenses pursuant to paragraph (1). Where such demerit points exceed a certain threshold during a period set by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, the drivers' licenses may be revoked or suspended, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) When a person who holds a student license causes any traffic accident deliberately or by negligence while driving a motor vehicle or violates this Act, or any order or disposition issued or taken pursuant to this Act, the commissioner of a district police agency shall revoke his/her student license: Provided, That the same shall not apply where the fault does not clearly lie with the person or in other cases prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(4) When the commissioner of a district police agency intends to take a disposition to revoke or suspend a driver's license pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) or intends to take a disposition to revoke a student license pursuant to paragraph (3), he/she shall pre-notify the party subject to the disposition of the terms of the disposition and a deadline for presenting his/her opinion, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, and when the commissioner takes the disposition, he/she shall notify the party subject to the disposition of the grounds for such disposition and the period during which an administrative appeal may be filed, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That when the commissioner of a district police agency intends to revoke a driver's license due to the party's failure to undergo an aptitude test provided for in Article 87 (2) or 88 (1), he/she shall notify the party subject to the disposition of the fact that if he/she fails to undergo the aptitude test before the date until which he/she can undergo an aptitude test arrives, his/her driver's license shall be revoked in lieu of the notice served before or after the disposition, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
[“Simply Unconstitutional” declared by the Constitutional Court in Case No. 2016-A-6: “When a person steals another person's motor vehicle, etc.” in Article 93 (1) 12 of the previous Road Traffic Act (as amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011 and before being amended by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016)” violates the Constitution.]
 Article 94 (Filing of Objections to Disposition to Revoke or Suspend Drivers' Licenses)
(1) Anyone dissatisfied with a disposition to revoke or suspend his/her driver's license pursuant to Article 93 (1) or (2) or a disposition to revoke his/her student license pursuant to paragraph (3) of the same Article may file an objection with the commissioner of a district police agency within 60 days from the date that person is notified of the disposition, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency shall establish a deliberative committee on administrative dispositions for drivers' licenses (hereinafter referred to as "objection deliberative committee") to deliberate on objections filed under paragraph (1), as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) Anyone who files an objection pursuant to paragraph (1) may file an administrative appeal pursuant to the Administrative Appeals Act, notwithstanding having filed an objection. In such cases, anyone notified of the result of his/her objection after having filed an objection (excluding anyone who files an administrative appeal pursuant to the Administrative Appeals Act before being notified of the result of such objection) may file an administrative appeal pursuant to the Administrative Appeals Act within 90 days from the date he/she is notified of the result of such objection.
(4) A person who is not a public official among the members of the objection deliberative committee shall be deemed a public official for the purposes of Articles 129 through 132 of the Criminal Act. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 95 (Return of Drivers' Licenses)
(1) Anyone obtaining a driver's license falling under any of the following subparagraphs shall return such driver's license to the commissioner of a district police agency having jurisdiction over that person's domicile within seven days (in cases falling under subparagraphs 4 and 5, when a driver submits his/her driver's license in order to obtain a new driver's license) from the date the grounds thereof occur:
1. When that person is subject to disposition of revocation of his/her driver's license;
2. When that person is subject to disposition of suspension of the effect of his/her driver's license;
3. When that person lost his/her driver's license and finds such lost driver's license after having it reissued;
4. When a person who has obtained a student license receives a Class I ordinary driver's licence or a Class II ordinary driver's license;
5. When a person has his/her driver's license renewed.
(2) A police officer may directly collect a driver's license possessed by any person who has failed to return his/her driver's license, in violation of paragraph (1).
(3) Where the commissioner of a district police agency has been returned a driver's license pursuant to paragraph (1) 2 or has collected a driver's license from a person under paragraph (1) 2 pursuant to paragraph (2), he/she shall keep such driver's license in custody and return it immediately after the period of suspension expires.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER IX INTERNATIONAL DRIVERS' LICENSES
 Article 96 (Driving of Motor Vehicles, etc. Using International Drivers' Licenses)
(1) Anyone who obtains a driver's license from the authoritative institution of any foreign country according to any of the following Convention, Agreement, or Arrangement (hereinafter referred to as "international driver's license") may drive a motor vehicle using such international driver's license only for the period of one year from the date on which that person enters the Republic of Korea, notwithstanding Article 80 (1). In such cases, the types of motor vehicles that person may drive shall be limited to the types of motor vehicles that are entered in the international driver's license: <Amended by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
1. The Convention on Road Traffic concluded in Geneva in 1949;
2. The Convention on Road Traffic concluded in Vienna in 1968;
3. A Convention, Agreement, or Arrangement on the mutual recognition of international drivers’ licenses between the Republic of Korea and a foreign country.
(2) Anyone who is issued with an international driver's license in any foreign country shall be prohibited from driving any commercial motor vehicle as provided for in the Passenger Transport Service Act or the Trucking Transport Business Act: Provided, That the same shall not apply to cases where that person rents any rental motor vehicle provided for in the Passenger Transport Service Act to drive such vehicle.
(3) Anyone falling under the grounds for disqualification from holding a driver's license provided for in Article 82 (2) and for whom the period that is classified in any subparagraph of the same paragraph has not elapsed shall not drive any motor vehicle, notwithstanding paragraph (1).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 97 (Prohibition against Driving Motor Vehicles, etc,)
(1) Where anyone who drives any motor vehicle, etc. using an international driver's license in the Republic of Korea pursuant to Article 96 falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency having jurisdiction over such person's domicile may prohibit that person from driving any motor vehicle, etc. using that international driver's license by up to one year according to the standards set by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a person fails to undergo or pass an aptitude test provided for in Article 88 (1);
2. Where a person causes any traffic accident deliberately or by negligence while driving a motor vehicle;
3. Where a person holds Korean citizenship and for whom the period provided for in any subparagraph of Article 82 (2) has yet to elapse since his/her driver's license has been revoked or the effect of his/her driver's license has been suspended pursuant to Article 93 (1) or (2);
4. Where a person violates this Act, or any order issued or disposition taken pursuant to this Act with respect to the driving of a motor vehicle, etc.
(2) Anyone prohibited from driving a motor vehicle, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1) shall surrender without delay his/her international driver's license to the commissioner of a district police agency who prohibits him/her from driving his/her motor vehicle using such international driver's license.
(3) Where the prohibition period referred to in paragraph (1) elapses or the person subject to the disposition to prohibit him/her from driving his/her motor vehicle leaves the Republic of Korea during the prohibition period, the commissioner of a district police agency shall return without delay such person's international driver's license that he/she has retained in custody at the relevant person's request.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 98 (Issuance of International Drivers' Licenses, etc.)
(1) Anyone who obtains a driver's license pursuant to Article 80 and intends to be issued an international driver's license pursuant to the Convention on Road Traffic provided for in Article 96 (1) 1 shall file an application with the commissioner of a district police agency therefor.
(2) The effective period of an international driver's license referred to in paragraph (1) shall be one year from the date of issuance thereof.
(3) An international driver's license referred to in paragraph (1) shall cease to have its effect, when the effect of the driver's license of the Republic of Korea of the relevant person to whom the international driver's license is issued, is lost or revoked.
(4) The effect of an international driver's license referred to in paragraph (1) shall be suspended during the suspension period, when the effect of the driver's license of the Republic of Korea of the relevant person to whom the international driver's license is issued, is suspended.
(5) Matters necessary for issuing international drivers' licenses referred to in paragraph (1) shall be determined by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 98-2 (Restrictions on Issuance of International Drivers’ Licenses)
Where a person who intends to be issued an international driver’s license pursuant to Article 98 has an unpaid penalty or administrative fine (referring to a penalty or administrative fine imposed in violation of this Act; hereafter the same shall apply in this Article), the commissioner of a district police agency may refuse to issue the international driver’s license: Provided, That the same shall not apply during the period of payment of a penalty under Article 164 (1) or (2) or the period of payment of an administrative fine under Article 160, which is prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018]
CHAPTER X DRIVING SCHOOLS
 Article 99 (Registration of Driving Schools)
Each person who intends to establish and operate a driving school (hereinafter referred to as "driving school") shall have the driving school registered with the commissioner of a district police agency, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, after meeting necessary conditions, such as facilities, equipment, etc. provided for in Article 101, the fixed number of instructors and the standards for their allocation to classes provided for in Article 103. The same shall apply where such person intends to change any of the registered matters prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 100 (Conditional Registration of Driving Schools)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency may accept the registration of any driving school as provided for in Article 99 on the condition that the facilities, equipment, etc. provided for in Article 101 be installed within the period prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) When anyone whose driving school has been registered pursuant to paragraph (1) fails to install the facilities, equipment, etc. within the period set under the same paragraph without justifiable grounds, the commissioner of the competent district police agency shall revoke its registration.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 101 (Standards for Establishing Driving Schools)
Every driving school shall secure the facilities and equipment necessary for education, such as lecture rooms, skill-training courses, incidental facilities, etc. (including educational incidental facilities for training physically handicapped persons) in accordance with the standards prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 102 (Grounds for Disqualification from Driving School Registration)
(1) None of the following persons can register a driving school pursuant to Article 99: <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
1. A person under adult guardianship;
2. A person who has not yet been reinstated after having been adjudicated bankrupt;
3. A person for whom three years have not elapsed since his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court was completely executed or the non-execution of such sentence became final, or a person who is under suspension of the execution of his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court;
4. A person whose qualifications are suspended or relinquished by the judgment of any court;
5. A person who establishes and operates a driving school and for whom one year has yet to elapse from the date the registration of the school is annulled pursuant to Article 113 (1) 1, 5 through 12, (2), and (4) or any person who intends to establish and operate a driving school in the same location within one year from the date the registration of a driving school is annulled;
6. A corporation, any executive officer of which falls under any of subparagraphs 1 through 5.
(2) Where a person who has established and operated a driving school falls under any subparagraph of paragraph (1), the registration of such driving school shall cease to have effect: Provided, That the same shall not apply where any executive officer of the corporation falls under paragraph (1) 6 and the executive officer is dismissed or replaced by any other executive officer within three months from the date the executive officer is found to fall under paragraph (1) 6.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 103 (Instructors and Educational Courses of Driving Schools)
(1) Necessary matters concerning requirements for the qualifications of instructors in responsible for education in driving schools (referring to persons who educate prospective drivers in statutes governing roads and traffic, in a knowledge of roads and traffic, and skills to drive motor vehicles; hereinafter the same shall apply), the fixed number of instructors and the standards for allocating the instructors, etc. to classes shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) Necessary matters concerning educational courses and methods of driving schools and standards for operating driving schools shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 104 (Designation, etc. of Specialized Driving Schools)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency may designate any driving school registered pursuant to Article 99 and meeting each of the following requirements, as a specialized driving school (hereinafter referred to as "specialized driving school"), as prescribed by Presidential Decree, in order to raise the standards of education concerning the driving of motor vehicles and to upgrade the quality of drivers:
1. A specialized driving school is required to appoint a superintendent (referring to a person in charge of the education of subjects and skills and the operation of the affairs of the specialized driving school; hereinafter the same shall apply) who meets the qualifications specified under Article 105: Provided, That where a person who establishes and operates a specialized driving school fulfills the requirements for qualifications may concurrently serve as a superintendent, and in such cases, that person shall appoint an assistant superintendent who assists the superintendent:
2. A specialized driving school is required to appoint instructors provided for in Article 106 and skill examiners (referring to persons who perform the skill examinations provided for in Article 108; hereinafter the same shall apply) provided for in Article 107 according to the standards prescribed by Presidential Decree;
3. A specialized driving school is required to have the facilities and equipment in conformity with the standards prescribed by Presidential Decree and other facilities and equipment, etc. necessary to be designated as a traffic safety educational institution pursuant to Article 74 (2);
4. Methods of education, the abilities of graduates to drive motor vehicles, and the operation of the relevant specialized driving school shall comply with the standards prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency shall not designate any of the following driving schools as a specialized driving school:
1. A driving school established and operated by a person (hereinafter referred to as "person who has established and operated a driving school, etc.") who has established and operated a driving school or specialized driving school (hereinafter referred to as "driving school, etc."), the registration of which has been revoked pursuant to Article 113 (excluding paragraph (1) 2 through 4), or a driving school established and operated by any former superintendent or vice superintendent within three years from the date the registration of such driving school has been revoked;
2. Where the registration of any driving school has been revoked pursuant to Article 113 (excluding paragraph (1) 2 through 4), the driving school established and operated in the same location within three years from the date the registration of such driving school has been revoked.
(3) When a specialized driving school designated pursuant to paragraph (1) intends to change important matters prescribed by Presidential Decree, it shall obtain approval therefor from the commissioner of a district police agency having jurisdiction over the location of such specialized driving school.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 105 (Superintendents, etc. of Specialized Driving Schools)
Every superintendent or every vice superintendent shall be a person who fulfills each of the following requirements: <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
1. A person between 30 and 65 years of age;
2. A person who has a road traffic career for at least three years (limited to a carrier of managerial post) or a person who has an operations and management career of a driving school, etc. for at least three years and shall not fall under any of the following items:
(a) A minor or a person under adult guardianship;
(b) A person who has not yet been reinstated after having been adjudicated bankrupt;
(c) A person for whom two years (three years where he/she violates any subparagraph of Article 150) have not elapsed since his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court for violating the provisions of this Act and other Acts was completely executed or the non-execution of such sentence became final (including where the execution of the sentence is deemed terminated);
(d) A person for whom three years have not elapsed since having been sentenced to a fine for violating any subparagraph of Article 150;
(e) A person who is under suspension of the execution of his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court;
(f) A person who is under suspension of the sentence of his/her imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment declared by a court;
(g) A person whose qualifications are suspended or relinquished by any Act or any court judgment;
(h) A person for whom two years have not elapsed since the date he/she was issued with a disposition of disciplinary actions or dismissal from office pursuant to the State Public Officials Act, the Police Officials Act, or other relevant Acts;
3. Where a person has established and operated a driving school, etc. or he/she was a superintendent or vice superintendent of the driving school, etc., the registration of which has been revoked pursuant to Article 113 (1) 1, 5 through 12, (2), or (4), a person for whom three years have elapsed since the date the registration thereof has been revoked.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 106 (Instructors of Specialized Driving Schools)
(1) Each person who intends to become an instructor of any specialized driving school shall pass an instructor qualification examination prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, and shall complete the training and education aimed at training and educating prospective drivers in driving motor vehicles in any specialized institution designated by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall issue the certificates of qualifications to persons who have the qualifications referred to in paragraph (1), as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) Any of the following persons shall be disqualified from being an instructor of a specialized driving school:
1. Anyone who falls under Article 76 (3) 1 through 3;
2. Anyone for whom three years have yet to elapse from the date his/her instructor's certificate of qualification has been revoked in accordance with paragraph (4);
3. Anyone who fails to obtain a driver's license to drive any motor vehicle, etc. used to educate prospective drivers in upgrading skills and abilities necessary to drive their motor vehicles, etc. on the road provided for in Article 83 (1) 4 and (2) (hereinafter referred to as "skill training");
4. Anyone for whom two years have not elapsed from the date he/she obtained his/her driver's license for driving a motor vehicle used in skill training.
(4) When anyone who obtains an instructor's certificate of qualification pursuant to paragraph (2) falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke such instructor's certificate of qualification according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety or suspend the effect of such instructor's certificate of qualification by fixing a period of up to one year: Provided, That where he/she falls under any of subparagraphs 1 through 5, such instructor's certificate of qualification shall be revoked and subparagraphs 5 and 6 shall not apply to any instructor assigned to educate prospective drivers in the knowledge, etc. necessary to drive motor vehicles, etc. pursuant to Article 83 (1) 2 and 3: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a person takes delivery of a driver's license by fraud or other improper means;
2. Where a person is sentenced to imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment (including the suspension of execution) for violating Article 3 (1) of the Act on Special Cases concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents or Article 5-3 of the Act on the Aggravated Punishment, etc. of Specific Crimes;
3. Where a person educates prospective drivers in a period during which his/her qualifications as an instructor are suspended;
4. Where a person lends his/her instructor's certificate of qualifications to any other person;
5. Where a person's driver's license necessary for driving a motor vehicle used to educate prospective drivers in skills to drive motor vehicles has been revoked;
6. Where the effect of a person's driver's license necessary for driving a motor vehicle used to educate prospective drivers in skills to drive motor vehicles has been suspended;
7. Where a person performs any illegal act in connection with the performance of his/her work as an instructor;
8. Where a person educates prospective drivers in driving motor vehicles in return for any payment, in violation of Article 116;
9. Where a person violates this Act, or any order issued or disposition taken under this Act.
(5) No superintendent of any specialized driving school shall require anyone who is not an instructor to provide education for knowledge or skills necessary to drive motor vehicles.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 107 (Skill Examiners)
(1) Each person who intends to become a skill examiner shall pass the examination for qualifying as a skill examiner that is prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety and shall complete the training and education on the examination of skills to drive motor vehicles in any of the specialized institutions designated by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall issue certificates of qualifications of skill examiners to persons who complete the training and education referred to in paragraph (1), as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) None of the following persons shall become a skill examiner:
1. Anyone younger than 27 years of age;
2. Anyone who falls under Article 76 (3) 2 or 3;
3. Anyone for whom three years have yet to elapse since the date his/her qualifications as a skill examiner are revoked pursuant to paragraph (4);
4. Anyone who fails to receive a driver's license necessary for him/her to drive any motor vehicle used to perform skill examinations and for whom three years have yet to elapse since the date he/she received a driver's license.
(4) When any skill examiner falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke the examiner's qualifications as a skill examiner according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety or suspend the effects of the qualifications as a skill examiner by fixing a period of up to one year: Provided, That where the examiner falls under any of subparagraphs 1 through 6, the qualifications as a skill examiner shall be revoked: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a skill examiner falsely proves that he/she has passed an examination to qualify as a skill examiner under Article 108 (4);
2. Where a skill examiner is issued the certificate of qualifications as the skill examiner by fraud or other improper means;
3. Where a skill examiner is sentenced to imprisonment without labor or heavier punishment (including the suspension of execution) for violating Article 3 (1) of the Act on Special Cases concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents or Article 5-3 of the Act on the Aggravated Punishment, etc. of Specific Crimes;
4. Where a skill examiner performs any skill examination during a period in which his/her qualifications as a skill examiner are suspended;
5. Where a skill examiner lends his/her certificate of qualifications as a skill examiner to any other person;
6. Where a skill examiner driver's license that enables him/her to drive a motor vehicle used to perform skill examinations has been revoked;
7. Where the effect of a skill examiner's driver's license necessary for him/her to drive a motor vehicle used to perform skill examinations has been suspended;
8. Where a skill examiner performs any illegal act with respect to the work of skill examiners;
9. Where a skill examiner violates this Act, or any order issued or disposition taken under this Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 108 (Skill Examinations)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency may require the superintendent of any specialized driving school to perform the skill examination of students of the relevant specialized driving school, as prescribed by Presidential Decree, in order to determine whether they have skills to drive motor vehicles or drive motor vehicles on the road pursuant to Article 83 (1) 4 and (2) (hereinafter referred to as "skill examination").
(2) The superintendent of any specialized driving school shall require skill examiners to perform a skill examination for any of the following persons, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Anyone who has completed education of classroom subjects and skill training aimed at upgrading skills necessary to drive any motor vehicle, etc. pursuant to Article 83 (1) 4 (hereinafter referred to as "skill training in a driving school");
2. Anyone who has completed skill training aimed at upgrading skills necessary to drive any motor vehicle, etc. on a road pursuant to Article 83 (2) (hereinafter referred to as "driving training on a road").
(3) No superintendent of any specialized driving school shall allow anyone who is not a skill examiner to perform any skill examination.
(4) Every skill examiner shall attest to, in writing, those persons who successfully undergo a skill examination held by him/her, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(5) With respect to persons who are attested to, in writing, by any skill examiner as those who successfully undergo a skill examination under paragraph (4), the superintendent of every specialized driving school shall issue a certificate of completion or a certificate of graduation to each of such persons according to the relevant kinds of skill examination, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 109 (Training, Education, etc. for Instructors, etc.)
(1) When deemed necessary to upgrade the quality of any of the following, the commissioner of a district police agency may conduct training and education for them, as prescribed by Presidential Decree. In such cases, any person who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. and who is notified of the training and education shall conduct the training and education for them unless special grounds prevent such person from doing so and shall take measures to arrange for the persons referred to in subparagraphs 2 and 3 to participate in such training and education:
1. Any person who establishes and operates a driving school, etc.;
2. Any instructor of a driving school, etc.;
3. Any skill examiner.
(2) Each person who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. shall publicly post the names, ages, and careers of instructors as well as curriculums of such driving school, etc., as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 110 (Tuition Fees, etc.)
(1) Any person who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. may collect tuition fees, costs incurred in performing skill examinations pursuant to Article 108, or usage charges, etc. (hereinafter referred to as "tuition fees, etc.") from students.
(2) Any person who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. shall determine tuition fees, etc. taking into account the details of education, education hours, etc. and then publicly display them in the driving school, etc., as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(3) No person who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. shall receive any money in excess of tuition fees, etc. publicly displayed pursuant to paragraph (2).
(4) When the education of driving schools is deemed likely to deteriorate due to the excessive reduction in tuition fees, etc., the commissioner of the district police agency may order the adjustment in the excessive reduction therein, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 111 (Refund of Tuition Fees, etc.)
(1) Where a student is unable to attend lectures or a student is unable to continue to operate the driving education because the registration of the driving school, etc. has been revoked, the relocation of the driving school, etc., the operation of the driving school, etc. has been suspended, or the designation of the driving school, etc. has been revoked, anyone who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. shall take measures to refund tuition fees paid by students and shall protect students by assisting them to enroll in another driving school, etc.
(2) Necessary matters concerning the grounds for the refund of tuition fees, etc., the amount of refund and measures, etc. for assisting students to enroll in another driving school, etc. as referred to in paragraph (1) shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) Where a student is enrolled in another driving school, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1), the education hours during which a student is educated in the previous driving school, etc. shall be deemed the education hours of the driving school, etc. in which such student is newly enrolled.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 112 (Reporting on Suspension or Closure of Driving Schools, etc.)
Where anyone who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. closes, or suspends the operation of, the driving school, etc. for a period of at least one month, such person shall report thereon to the commissioner of a district police agency within seven days from the date he/she closes, or suspends the operation of, the driving school, etc., as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 113 (Administrative Disposition Taken against Driving Schools, etc.)
(1) When a driving school, etc. falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency shall revoke the registration thereof or order it to suspend the operation thereof by fixing a period of up to one year according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That when the driving school, etc. falls under subparagraph 1, its registration shall be revoked: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a driving school, etc. has been registered pursuant to Article 99 or has been designated pursuant to Article 104 (1) by fraud or other improper means;
2. Where a driving school, etc. falls short of the facility standards provided for in Article 101;
3. Where a driving school, etc. fails to open by the time two months have elapsed since the date it is scheduled to open without justifiable grounds;
4. Where a driving school, etc. suspends its operation for at least two months without justifiable grounds;
5. Where a driving school, etc. operates by illegal means, changing registered matters without registering such changes;
6. Where a driving school, etc. violates the standards for posting instructors provided for in Article 103 (1) or the standards for posting skill examiners and instructors provided for in Article 104 (1) 2;
7. Where a driving school, etc. conducts its education in contrary to the educational courses, educational methods, operation standards, etc. provided for in Article 103 (2) or 104 (1) 4, or verifies the completion of such education falsely;
8. Where anyone who establishes and operates a driving school, etc. fails to comply with a request for training and education, and to take measures for instructors and skill examiners of the driving school, etc. to undergo training and education, in violation of the latter part of Article 109 (1);
9. Where a driving school, etc. fails to submit materials or to make a report pursuant to Article 141 (2) or submits false materials or makes a false report;
10. Where a driving school, etc. refuses, impedes, or evades access and inspection by public officials in charge of driving schools, etc. provided for in Article 141 (2);
11. Where a driving school, etc. fails to comply with an order issued to improve its facilities and equipment pursuant to Article 141 (2) and any other order with respect to necessary matters;
12. Where a driving school, etc. violates this Act, or any order issued or disposition taken under this Act.
(2) Where a specialized driving school falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke the registration thereof or order it to suspend the operation thereof by fixing a period of up to one year, according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a specialized driving school fails to conduct traffic safety education provided for in Article 74 (1);
2. Where a specialized driving school falls under the grounds for a disposition to cancel the designation of a traffic safety educational institution referred to in Article 79 or to suspend the operation thereof;
3. Where the operation of a specialized driving school is not in conformity with the standards provided for in Article 104 (1) 4;
4. Where a specialized driving school fails to obtain approval to change important matters, in violation of Article 104 (3);
5. Where the superintendent of a specialized driving school allows anyone who is not an instructor to provide education for knowledge and skills, in violation of Article 106 (5);
6. Where a specialized driving school performs the skill examination of any person who has not completed knowledge and skills education concerning the driving of motor vehicles, or skill examination of any other person who has not completed driving training on a road, in violation of Article 108 (2);
7. When the superintendent of a specialized driving school allows anyone who is not a skill examiner to examine skills, in violation of Article 108 (3);
8. When any skill examiner of a specialized driving school falsely verifies a successful result for any skill examination test, in violation of Article 108 (4);
9. When the superintendent of a specialized driving school issues a certificate of completion or a certificate of graduation to anyone who fails to pass a skill examination, in violation of Article 108 (5).
(3) Where a specialized driving school falls under any of the following cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke the designation thereof, according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Where a specialized driving school is found not to be in conformity with the standards for designation provided for in Article 104 (1) 1 through 3;
2. Where the operation of a specialized driving school is suspended pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2).
(4) Where a driving school, etc. continues to operate in violation of an order issued to suspend the operation thereof pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2), the commissioner of a district police agency may revoke the registration thereof or order it to re-suspend the operation thereof by fixing a period of up to one year, according to the standards prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 114 (Hearings)
When intending to revoke the registration, designation, etc. of any driving school, etc. pursuant to Article 113, the commissioner of a district police agency shall hold a hearing with regard thereto.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 115 (Measures Taken against Driving Schools, etc.)
(1) Where any driving school, etc. established and operated without having been registered pursuant to Article 99 or designated under Article 104 (1), or any other driving school, etc., the registration thereof is revoked pursuant to Article 113, or is subject to a disposition to suspend the operation thereof, continues to conduct driving training, the commissioner of a district police agency may take any of the following measures to close the relevant driving school, etc. or suspend the operation thereof:
1. Measures to remove the signboard and signs of the relevant driving school, etc. and install facilities used to prevent students from entering the relevant driving school, etc.;
2. Measures to affix signs to the relevant driving school, etc., which publicly inform that the relevant driving school, etc. is an unregistered or non-designated establishment and is subject to an administrative disposition taken pursuant to Article 113.
(2) The measures referred to in paragraph (1) shall be taken within the minimum extent necessary to accomplish the objectives thereof.
(3) Public officials in charge of the measures referred to in paragraph (1) shall carry certificates evidencing their authority and produce them to interested parties.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 116 (Prohibition on Unregistered and Paid Driving Education)
No person who fails to have his/her driving school registered pursuant to Article 99 shall perform any of the following acts in return for payment:
1. Driving education of motor vehicles, etc. conducted outside a driving school, etc., or conducted in a driving school, etc., after borrowing the name of a driving school, etc.;
2. Installing facilities to practice driving a motor vehicle, etc. and soliciting people to make use of such facilities.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 117 (Prohibition on Using Similar Names, etc.)
(1) Anyone who fails to have his/her driving school registered pursuant to Article 99 shall not display or advertise its trading name using any name similar to that of the driving school.
(2) Anyone who fails to have his/her driving school registered pursuant to Article 99 shall not affix any sign similar to that of a motor vehicle of any driving school, which is used for driving training on a road, on any motor vehicle that he/she owns or rents.
(3) Any driving school that is not a specialized driving school provided for in this Act shall not use the title "specialized driving school" or any title similar thereto.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 118 (Legal Fiction of Superintendents of Specialized Driving Schools as Public Officials)
The superintendent or vice superintendent of any specialized driving school, when verifying the details of skill examinations, and lecture participation, skill examiners, when conducting skill examinations and lecturers, when verifying lecture participation, respectively, shall be deemed public officials in the application of the Criminal Act and the penalty provisions of other Acts.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 119 (Federation of Specialized Driving Schools)
(1) The founders of specialized driving schools may form a federation of specialized driving schools (hereinafter referred to as the "Federation") in order to ensure the sound development of specialized driving schools and facilitate mutual cooperation among them and their common interests.
(2) The Federation shall be a corporation.
(3) Any of the following matters shall be included in the Articles of association of the Federation:
1. Objectives;
2. Name;
3. The location of its principal office;
4. Matters concerning the board of directors and its members;
5. Matters concerning its executive officers and employees;
6. Matters concerning its work;
7. Matters concerning its property and accounting;
8. Matters concerning any change in the Articles of association.
(4) The Articles of association referred to in paragraph (3) shall be authorized by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency. The same shall apply to cases where the Articles of association is amended.
(5) The Federation shall perform the work falling under each of the following subparagraphs:
1. The study of ways to develop the specialized driving school system;
2. The development of educational facilities and teaching materials of specialized driving schools;
3. The study and development of ways to examine education and skills that are conducted by specialized driving schools;
4. Projects aimed at facilitating the education, training and welfare of the superintendents, vice superintendents, skill examiners and instructors of specialized driving schools;
5. Matters commissioned by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency;
6. Other projects necessary to attain the objectives of the Federation.
(6) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall supervise the Federation as prescribed by Presidential Decree and may give orders necessary to ensure the sound operation of the Federation.
(7) The provisions governing incorporated associations under the Civil Act, with the exception of the provisions of this Act governing the Federation, shall apply mutatis mutandis to the Federation.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER XI ROAD TRAFFIC AUTHORITY
 Article 120 (Establishment of Road Traffic Authority)
(1) The Road Traffic Authority (hereinafter referred to as the "Authority") shall be established in order to prevent traffic danger and impediments on roads by keeping traffic in good order and raising the traffic safety through education, public relations, study and technological development of traffic safety and administration of driver's license tests.
(2) The Authority shall be a corporation.
(3) Matters necessary for the establishment and the registration of the Authority shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 121 (Establishment of Branch Offices, etc.)
The Authority may have a branch office, sub-branch office, research institute, traffic accident analysis center, educational institution, traffic report broadcasting station and driver's license test facilities.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 122 (Articles of Association)
(1) Any of the following matters shall be included in the Articles of association of the Authority:
1. Objectives;
2. Name;
3. The location of its principal office;
4. Matters concerning its projects;
5. Matters concerning the board of directors;
6. Matters concerning its executive officers and employees;
7. Matters concerning its property and accounting;
8. Matters concerning its operational fund;
9. Matters concerning publication;
10. Matters concerning any amendment to its Articles of association.
(2) The Authority shall, when it intends to amend its Articles of association, obtain authorization thereon from the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 123 (Projects)
The Authority shall undertake any of the following projects:
1. Surveying and studies conducted to map out measures to ensure the road traffic safety;
2. The research and development of road traffic safety technology, its dissemination and technical services;
3. Public relations and broadcasts concerning road traffic safety;
4. Education and training concerning road traffic safety and the issuance and management of certificates of qualifications;
5. Testing, inspecting, correcting, operating and managing the traffic safety facilities and traffic law enforcement devices as well as technical support;
6. The collection, publication and distribution of data pertaining to road traffic safety;
7. The recommendation of ways to resolve problems involving in the enforcement of statutes governing roads and traffic;
8. The introduction of foreign technology used to ensure the safety of road traffic, and international cooperation with foreign organizations involved in road traffic safety;
9. Technical support for the administration of road traffic safety, and support for educating and training public officials in charge of road traffic administrative affairs;
10. The inspection and analysis of road traffic accidents and related support services;
11. Administration of driver's license tests;
12. A regular aptitude test and occasional aptitude test on a person who has received a driver's license;
13. The work of the road traffic safety commissioned by the State or local governments;
14. Other work incidental to the work referred to in subparagraphs 1 through 13;
15. Other work necessary to attain the objectives of the Authority.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 124 (Bearing of Expenses, etc.)
When the Authority is commissioned by any corporation, organization or individual to perform the work related to the project activities provided for in Article 123, it may receive necessary expenses from such corporation, organization or individual.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 125 (Executive Officers)
The Authority shall have 11 or less directors including one president and one auditor.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010]
 Articles 126 through 128 Deleted. <by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010>
 Article 129 (Employees)
The employees of the Authority shall be appointed or dismissed by the president as prescribed by the Articles of association.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 129-2 (Legal Fiction of Public Officials of Executive Officers and Employees of the Authority)
Where the penalty provisions under the Criminal Act or other Acts apply to affairs referred to in subparagraphs 11 through 13 of Article 123 and affairs which the Authority comes to conduct by proxy pursuant to Article 147 (5) and (6), executive officers and employees of the Authority shall be deemed public officials.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010]
 Article 129-3 (Prohibition of Divulgence of Confidential Information)
Any person who is or was an executive officer or employee of the Authority shall not divulge or use any confidential information by stealth he/she has learned in the course of his/her duties.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 130 (Operational Funds)
(1) The funds needed to operate the Authority and to undertake projects for road traffic safety shall be appropriated from the financial resources under any of the following subparagraphs:
1. Contributions and donations from the central government, local governments or individuals;
2. Revenues from performing projects pursuant to Article 123 and affairs entrusted or by agent pursuant to Article 147;
3. Profits that accrue from the management and operation of assets;
4. Subsidies, loans and borrowings (including any funds and any materials introduced from foreign countries);
5. Other revenues.
(2) Where it is deemed necessary to implement projects provided for in Article 123, the Authority may receive subsidy, take loans or borrow the funds (including funds borrowed or materials introduced by any international institution, any foreign government or any foreigner) upon approval therefor from the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency.
(3) When the authority has any surplus arising from the settlement of accounts at the end of any business year, it shall offset any loss brought forward and transfer any remainder to the annual revenues of the following year.
(4) Necessary matters concerning the purposes for the spending of and procedures for spending subsidies, loans or borrowings provided for in paragraph (1) 4 shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 131 (Investments, etc.)
(1) Where it is necessary to efficiently implement projects, the Authority may invest in or contribute to works related to projects provided for in Article 123.
(2) When the Authority intends to make any investment or contributions pursuant to paragraph (1), it shall obtain approval therefor from the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 132 (Gratuitous Leases of State-Owned Properties)
Where it is necessary for the facilities and the operation of the Authority, the State or local governments may gratuitously lease State-owned property and public property to the Authority and allow it to use them or to make a profit on them.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 133 Deleted. <by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010>
 Article 134 (Compilation of Budget and Approval)
The Authority shall compile a budget of the following fiscal year and undergo the resolution of the board of directors and then determine the budget with approval of the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency before the commencement of the following fiscal year. The same shall also apply when it changes the budget.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 135 Deleted. <by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010>
 Article 136 (Mutatis Mutandis Application of Civil Act)
The provisions of the Civil Act governing incorporated foundations shall apply mutatis mutandis to the Authority unless otherwise prescribed by this Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
CHAPTER XII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS
 Article 137 (Management, Provision, etc. of Information pertaining to Drivers)
(1) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall establish and operate a data processing system to maintain and manage integrated information on drivers' licenses, traffic accidents, and violations of traffic laws and regulations.
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency and the chief of a police station shall register and manage information on drivers' licenses, traffic accidents, and violations of traffic laws and regulations, and the Authority shall register and manage information on drivers' licenses in a data processing system pursuant to paragraph (1), respectively.
(3) Any driver or his/her agent may file an application with the commissioner of a district police agency, the chief of a police station, or the Authority for a certificate of confirmation of the information referred to in paragraph (1), as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(4) In receipt of an application referred to in paragraph (3), the commissioner of a district police agency, the chief of a police station, or the Authority shall certify confirmation of information pertaining to the driver in the form of a document, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(5) Where any request is made to verify the authenticity of a driver's license, the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency or the Authority may verify its authenticity by using the data processing system referred to in paragraph (1). <Newly Inserted by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 137-2 (Request for Data, etc.)
(1) Where necessary to verify the place of sojourn or residence of a registered foreigner or foreign nationality Korean who holds a driver's license, the commissioner of a district police agency may request the Minister of Justice, through the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency, to provide the relevant information on the place of sojourn or residence.
(2) Where necessary to verify the identity of a registered foreigner or foreign nationality Korean who intends to be issued a driver's license, the commissioner of a district police agency may request the Minister of Justice, through the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency, to provide the fingerprint information of the relevant registered foreigner or foreign nationality Korean.
(3) Fees or charges for the use of information under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall be exempted.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016]
 Article 138 (Keeping of Drivers' Licenses, etc. in Custody)
(1) Where any driver of a motor vehicle, etc. falls under any of the following cases, police officers may deliver a notice for the payment of penalties or a written summons provided for in Article 164 to the driver of any motor vehicle, etc. on the spot and request the driver to surrender his/her driver's licence in order to keep it in custody. In such cases, the fact that a driver's license, etc. is kept in custody shall be entered in the notice for the payment of a penalty or the written summons:
1. Where a driver causes any traffic accident;
2. Where a driver is deemed subject to disposition of the revocation or suspension of his/her driver's license pursuant to Article 93;
3. Where a holder of an international driver's license issued in any foreign country under Article 96 commits an offense provided for in Article 162 (1).
(2) Each notice for the payment of a penalty or the written summons referred to in paragraph (1) shall have the same effect as that of a driver's license, etc. (excluding any student license) until the date the penalty is paid or the date appearance is made pursuant to the summons.
(3) Where any autonomous police officer keeps any driver's license, etc. in custody pursuant to paragraph (1), he/she shall promptly notify thereof, accompanied by the driver's license, etc. to the chief of the competent police station.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 138-2 (State Subsidies)
The State may fully or partially subsidize expenses incurred in establishing and managing protection areas for children under Article 12 and protection areas for older persons and persons with disabilities under Article 12-2 to local governments, within budgetary limits: Provided, That the subsidies shall be provided preferentially to protection areas where traffic accidents involving children, older persons, or persons with disabilities occur frequently. <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010]
 Article 139 (Fees)
(1) Any of the following persons shall pay fees, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety: Provided, That where the Commissioner General of the National Policy Agency or the commissioner of a district police agency has allowed the Authority to conduct business by agent pursuant to Article 147, any person shall pay fees determined and announced publicly by the Authority which conducts the relevant business by agent upon approval from the Commissioner General of the National Policy Agency, to the Authority: <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
1. Anyone who files an application for designating an emergency motor vehicle provided for in subparagraph 22 of Article 2;
2. Anyone who files an application for permitting the traffic of a motor vehicle, the width of which is wider than that of a lane pursuant to Article 14 (3);
3. Anyone who files an application for permission for persons to board any motor vehicle or to load goods onto any motor vehicle in excess of the safety standards provided for in Article 39;
4. Anyone who files an application for designation of any traffic safety educational institution pursuant to Article 74;
5. Anyone who files an application for the issuance or re-issuance of his/her driver's license pursuant to Articles 85 through 87;
6. Deleted; <by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
7. Anyone who files an application for issuance of an international driver's license pursuant to Article 98;
8. Anyone who files an application for designation of a specialized driving school pursuant to Article 104;
9. Anyone who applies for a qualification examination for instructors or skill examiners pursuant to Articles 106 and 107, or files an application for the issuance of a certificate of qualification (including the re-issuance of a certificate of qualification);
10. Deleted; <by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
11. Deleted. <by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
(2) Any of the following persons shall pay fees determined and announced publicly by the Authority upon approval from the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency:
1. Any person who applies for a driver's license test pursuant to Article 83;
2. Any person who applies for a regular aptitude test or occasional aptitude test or applies for the deferment of an aptitude test pursuant to Articles 87 and 88.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 140 (Tuition Fees, etc. of Traffic Safety Educational Institutions)
Anyone who conducts education under Article 73 may receive tuition fees from students. <Amended by Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 141 (Guidance, Supervision, etc.)
(1) The commissioner of a district police agency shall properly guide and supervise traffic safety educational institutions, driving schools, etc. in order to ensure their sound development.
(2) Where deemed necessary, the commissioner of a district police agency may request any of the following persons to submit or report matters concerning facilities, equipment, and education and submit various statistical data, or cause relevant public officials to enter relevant establishments to inspect facilities, equipment, books, and documents. In such cases, the commissioner of a district police agency may order facilities and equipment to be upgraded if deemed necessary to do so:
1. The head of any traffic safety educational institution;
2. Anyone who establishes and operates any driving school, etc.;
3. The superintendent of any specialized driving school provided for in Article 104 (1) 1.
(3) The relevant public officials who enter any traffic safety educational institution or driving school, etc. in order to perform inspections under paragraph (2) shall carry a certificate evidencing their authority and produce it to interested parties.
(4) The Commissioner General of the National Policy Agency shall direct and supervise the following matters, among affairs of the Authority and may issue orders necessary to accomplish the objectives for establishing the Authority:
1. Matters concerning organization management;
2. Matters concerning administration of driver's license tests and conducting business of regular or occasional aptitude tests;
3. Matters concerning the business which the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency entrusts, approves, or allows the Authority to conduct by agent and business which the commissioner of a district police agency entrusts or allows the Authority to conduct by agent;
4. Other matters prescribed by related statutes.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 142 (Relation to Administrative Litigation)
No administrative litigation on any disposition taken pursuant to this Act shall be filed unless it has undergone an abjudication in an administrative trial.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 143 (Regulation by Si/Gun Public Officials against Motor Vehicles Traveling in Exclusive Lanes, etc.)
(1) Where any driver is found to violate a duty not to travel along an exclusive lane under Article 15 (3), a duty to give the right of way to any emergency motor vehicle under Article 29 (4) and (5), or a duty not to stop and park a motor vehicle under Articles 32 through 34, Si/Gun public officials may issue a written notice forthwith clearly indicating the gist of such violation as well as the date on, and the place at, which the violator is to appear before the chief of the relevant police station (in cases of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, it shall refer to the Governor of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province; hereafter in this Article, the same shall apply) on the spot and request the driver to present his/her driver's license and keep it in custody, as prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. In such cases, the written notice shall have the same effect as that of a driver's license until the date the driver appears. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
(2) When a Si/Gun public official issues a written notice pursuant to paragraph (1), he/she shall notify without delay the chief of the relevant police station thereof, accompanied by the relevant driver's license.
(3) In receipt of a written notice notified pursuant to paragraph (2), the chief of the relevant police station shall confirm the act of violation.
(4) No Si/Gun public officials shall abuse their authority, contrary to the intended purposes, when issuing a written notice and taking any other measure pursuant to paragraph (1).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 144 (Formulation, etc. of Traffic Safety Rules and Guidelines for Traffic Safety Education)
(1) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall formulate traffic safety rules in which each of the following matters are addressed and disseminate such traffic safety rules widely: <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
1. The provisions of statutes governing road traffic safety;
2. Methods of handling motor vehicles and knowledge necessary to drive motor vehicles in a safe manner and in an environmental-friendly and economical manner;
3. Gist of making way for emergency motor vehicles;
4. Other matters necessary to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic by removing and preventing danger and impediment on the road.
(2) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall formulate and disseminate guidelines for traffic safety education in which each of the following matters are addressed in order for persons who educate persons walking the road regarding traffic safety to educate them effectively and systematically: <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
1. Matters concerning the safe and environment-friendly and economical driving of motor vehicles, etc.;
2. Matters concerning the prevention and settlement of traffic accidents;
3. Matters concerning safe movement of pedestrians;
4. Matters concerning the prevention of traffic accidents of children, persons with disabilities, and older persons;
5. Matters concerning the gist of making way for emergency motor vehicles;
6. Other matters necessary to efficiently educate people in traffic safety.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 145 (Provision of Traffic Information)
The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall collect and analyze information necessary to ensure safe and smooth flow of traffic and provide the public with the results thereof without delay. <Amended by Act No. 8845, Jan. 17, 2008>
 Article 145-2 (Large Area Traffic Information Project)
The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may assign the commissioners of district police agencies to promote a project, after consultation with Mayors, etc., for which they collect large area traffic information, and through which they supply the public with the findings of analysis of the information in connection with the traffic information of other areas.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 8845, Jan. 17, 2008]
 Article 146 (Merit Points for Accident-Free and Meritorious Drivers)
(1) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may award merit points for accident-free and meritorious driving to any person who has not caused any traffic accidents while driving a motor vehicle after holding a driver's license for a certain period and any other person who has received a merit award from the head of any police agency pursuant to the statutes governing the citations by the Government.
(2) The type of merit points referred to in paragraph (1), persons eligible for merit points, and matters necessary for awarding merit points, shall be prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety. <Amended by Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013; Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014; Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 147 (Commission, Entrustment, etc.)
(1) A Mayor, etc. may partially commission or entrust his/her authority or clerical work provided for in this Act, to the commissioner of a district police agency or the chief of a police station, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) The Special Metropolitan City Mayor and a Metropolitan City Mayor may partially commission his/her authority provided for in this Act, to the head of a Gu (referring to the head of an autonomous Gu) or Gun under his/her jurisdiction, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(3) The commissioner of a district police agency may partially commission his/her authority or clerical work provided for in this Act to the chief of the competent police station or entrust such authority or clerical work to a specialized traffic educational institution, or specialized research institution, etc., as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(4) The commissioner of a district police agency or the chief of a police station may partially entrust the clerical work commissioned or entrusted by a Mayor, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1) to a specialized traffic educational institution or a specialized research institution, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(5) The commissioner of a district police agency may allow the Authority to partially conduct his/her affairs by proxy regarding drivers' licenses under this Act, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(6) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may allow the Authority to conduct affairs by agent related to qualification examinations on instructors and skill inspectors and issuance of certificates of qualification pursuant to Articles 106 and 107.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 147-2 (Re-Examination of Regulation)
The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall examine the appropriateness of the following matters every three years from each base date specified in the following subparagraphs (referring to the period that ends on the day before the base date of every third year) and take such measures as the repeal, mitigation, or maintenance thereof:
1. Designation and management of protection areas for children provided for in Article 12: January 1, 2014;
2. Designation and management of protection areas for older persons and persons with disabilities provided for in Article 12-2: January 1, 2014.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015]
CHAPTER XIII PENALTY PROVISIONS
 Article 148 (Penalty Provisions)
Anyone who fails to take necessary measures provided for in Article 54 (1) when a traffic accident occurs (excluding persons who fail to provide personal information to a victim pursuant to Article 54 (1) 2, where it is evident that only a motor vehicle in the state of stoppage or parking is damaged), shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not exceeding five years or by a fine not exceeding 15 million won. <Amended by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 148-2 (Penalty Provisions)
(1) Any of the following persons shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not less than one year but not more than three years or by a fine not less than five million won but not exceeding ten million won: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Anyone who has violated Article 44 (1) twice or more (limited to a person who drives a motor vehicle, etc. or tram) and drives a motor vehicle, etc. or tram while intoxicated, in violation of Article 44 (1);
2. Anyone with reasonable grounds deemed intoxicated who fails to comply with a breath test required by a police officer pursuant to Article 44 (2) (limited to a person who drives a motor vehicle, etc. or tram).
(2) Anyone who drives a motor vehicle, etc. or tram while intoxicated, in violation of Article 44 (1) shall be punished according to the classification under each of the following subparagraphs: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Anyone whose blood alcohol content is not less than 0.2 percent shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not less than one year but not more than three years or by a fine not less than five million won but not exceeding ten million won;
2. Anyone whose blood alcohol content is not less than 0.1 percent but less than 0.2 percent shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not less than six months but not more than one year or a by fine not less than three million won but not exceeding five million won;
3. Anyone whose blood alcohol content is not less than 0.05 percent but less than 0.1 percent shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than six months or a by fine not exceeding three million won.
(3) Anyone who drives a motor vehicle, etc. or tram in the state that he/she is likely not to drive normally under the influence of drugs, in violation of Article 45 shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than three years or by a fine not exceeding ten million won. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 149 (Penalty Provisions)
(1) Anyone who has operated signal apparatus and removed, relocated or damaged traffic safety facilities without approval therefor in violation of Article 68 (1) shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than three years or by a fine not exceeding seven million won.
(2) Anyone who has caused any traffic danger on any road by way of any act referred to in paragraph (1) shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than five years or by a fine not exceeding 15 million won.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 150 (Penalty Provisions)
Any of the following persons shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than two years or by a fine not exceeding five million won:
1. Anyone who does or takes the lead in dangerous conduct with others, in violation of Article 46 (1) or (2);
2. Any traffic safety education instructor who falsely report the details of lecture participants as provided for in Article 77 (1);
3. The head of any traffic safety educational institution who issues a certificate of the education completion to anyone who has not participated in such education or met the standards, in violation of Article 77 (2);
4. Anyone who has registered a driving school provided for in Article 99 or is designated by a specialized driving school provided for in Article 104 (1) by fraud or other improper means;
5. Anyone who has issued any certificate of completion or any certificate of graduation provided for in Article 108 (5) without having a specialized driving school designated pursuant to Article 104 (1);
6. Anyone who has conducted driving education for motor vehicles, etc. in return for fees, in violation of Article 116;
7. Anyone who divulges or uses confidential information by stealth, in violation of Article 129-3.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 151 (Penalty Provisions)
Where the driver of any motor vehicle or tram damages the building or goods of any other person due to negligent disregard or gross negligence, he/she shall be punished by imprisonment without labor for not more than two years or by a fine not exceeding five million won. <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 151-2 (Penalty Provisions)
Any person who drives a motor vehicle, etc. recklessly in violation of Article 46-3 shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than one year or by a fine not exceeding five million won.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015]
 Article 152 (Penalty Provisions)
Any of the following persons shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than one year or by a fine not exceeding three million won:
1. Anyone who has driven a motor vehicle without obtaining a driver's license (excluding a motorcycle driver's license; hereafter the same shall apply in this Article) pursuant to Article 80 (including cases where the effect of the driver's license is suspended) or an international driver's license (including cases where the driving of any motor vehicle is prohibited and the effective period has expired) pursuant to Article 96, in violation of Article 43;
2. Any employer, etc. who has caused any person who has no driver's license (including any person for whom the effect of his/her driver's license is suspended) to drive any motor vehicle, in violation of Article 56 (2);
3. Anyone who has received a driver's license or a certificate of a driver's license or any certificate in lieu of a driver's license by fraud or other improper means;
4. Anyone who disposed of Articles on the road, which can impede the flow of traffic without permission therefor, in violation of Article 68 (2);
5. The head of any traffic safety educational institution who has caused any person who is not a traffic instructor to conduct the traffic safety education, in violation of Article 76 (4);
6. Anyone who has used any similar name, etc, in violation of Article 117.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 152-2 Deleted. <by Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010>
 Article 153 (Penalty Provisions)
(1) Any of the following persons shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than six months, by a fine not exceeding two million won, or by misdemeanor imprisonment: <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
1. Anyone who has caused another person to drive any poorly repaired motor vehicle or has driven any poorly repaired motor vehicle, in violation of Article 40;
2. Anyone who has not complied with or has rejected or impeded any request, any measure or any order of police officers pursuant to Article 41, 47, or 58;
3. Anyone who manufactures, imports, sells, or installs a device interfering with functions of traffic regulation equipment for the purpose of avoiding traffic regulation, in violation of Article 46-2;
4. Anyone who drives a motor vehicle with a device installed to interfere with functions of traffic regulation equipment, in violation of Article 49 (1) 4;
5. Anyone who has impeded the act of making a report or taking measures when any traffic accident occurs, in violation of Article 55;
6. Anyone who has installed traffic safety facilities or other artificial structures similar thereto without permission therefor, in violation of Article 68 (1);
7. Anyone who has driven a motor vehicle in violation of the conditions provided for in Article 80 (3) or (4).
(2) Anyone who drives a motor vehicle intentionally violating Article 13 (3) on an expressway, an exclusive road for motor vehicle, or a road with median strip, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one million won or by misdemeanor imprisonment. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 154 (Penalty Provisions)
Any of the following persons shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 300,000 won or by misdemeanor imprisonment: <Amended by Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Anyone who has made paintwork, markings, etc. on a motor vehicle, etc. or has driven a motor vehicle with such paintwork, markings, etc., in violation of Article 42;
2. Anyone who has driven a motorcycle without obtaining a motorcycle driver's license provided for in Article 80, in violation of Article 43;
3. Anyone who has driven a motor vehicle, etc. or tram in a condition that he/she is feared not to drive normally due to overwork or illness, in violation of Article 45;
4. Anyone who has failed to report or take measures when any traffic accident occurs, pursuant to Article 54 (2);
5. Any employer who has caused any other person who has not obtained a motorcycle driver's license, to drive a motorcycle, in violation of Article 56 (2);
6. Anyone who has walked or crossed any expressway, etc., in violation of Article 63;
7. Anyone who has failed to report on his/her road work provided for in Article 69 (1), has violated the measures provided for in paragraph (2) of the same Article, has failed to install the traffic safety facilities provided for in paragraph (3) of the same Article, or has failed to reinstate the traffic safety facilities, in violation of paragraph (4) of the same Article;
8. Anyone who has violated any order issued by the chief of a police station pursuant to Article 71 (1).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 155 (Penalty Provisions)
Anyone who has failed to comply with the request of any police officer to produce his/her driver's license or to make a statement to identify a driver, in violation of Article 92 (2) shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 200,000 won or by misdemeanor imprisonment.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 156 (Penalty Provisions)
Any of the following persons shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 200,000 won, by misdemeanor imprisonment, or by a minor fine: <Amended by Act No. 12045, Aug. 13, 2013; Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016; Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. The driver of any motor vehicle or tram or the rider of any horse who has violated Article 5, 13 (1) through (3) (in cases falling under Article 13 (3), excluding a person who drives a motor vehicle intentionally violating it on an expressway, an exclusive road for motor vehicles, or a road with median strip), or (5), 14 (2), (3), or (5), 15 (3) (including where the provisions are applied mutatis mutandis in Article 61 (2)), 15-2 (3), 16 (2), 17 (3), 18, 19 (1), (3), or (4), 21 (1), (3), or (4), 24, 25 through 28, 32, 33, 34-3, 37 (excluding paragraph (1) 2), 38 (1), 39 (1), (3), (4), and (5), 48 (1), 49 (excluding a person who drives a motor vehicle or tram in violation of paragraph (1) 1 or 3 of the same Article and a person who drives a motor vehicle with a device installed on which to interfere with functions of traffic regulation equipment, of the offenses referred to in subparagraph 4 of the same paragraph), 50 (5) through (7), 51, 53 (1) or (2) (excluding a driver who fails to make children or infants fasten their seat belts), 62, or 73 (2) (excluding subparagraph 1 of the same paragraph);
2. The driver of any motor vehicle or tram who has violated any prohibition, restrictions, or measures provided for in Article 6 (1), (2), or (4), or 7;
3. Anyone who has violated Article 22, 23, 29 (4) through (6), 53-2, 60, 64, 65, or 66;
4. Anyone who has violated Article 31, 34, or 52 (4) or any order issued pursuant to Article 35 (1);
5. Anyone who has violated any restrictions imposed by the commissioner of a district police agency pursuant to Article 39 (6);
6. Any driver who has failed to fasten his/her safety belt or to wear a life protection outfit, in violation of Article 50 (1) or (3);
7. Anyone who has refused or interfered with collecting his/her driver's license by a police officer pursuant to Article 95 (2);
8. An operator who has operated a school bus for children without having a guardian aboard, in violation of Article 53 (3);
9. Any driver who has failed to verify whether children or infants alighted, in violation of Article 53 (4);
10. Anyone who has failed to provide personal information to a victim pursuant to Article 54 (1) 2, where it was evident that only a motor vehicle in the state of stoppage or parking was damaged;
11. Anyone who has ridden a bicycle while intoxicated, in violation of Article 44 (1);
12. Anyone with reasonable grounds deemed that he/she is intoxicated, who has failed to comply with a breath test required by a police officer pursuant to Article 44 (2) (limited to a person who rides a bicycle).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 157 (Penalty Provisions)
Any of the following persons shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 200, 000 won, by misdemeanor imprisonment or by a minor fine:
1. Any pedestrian who has violated Articles 5, 8 (1) and 10 (2) through (5);
2. Any pedestrian who has violated any prohibition, any restrictions or measure provided for in Article 6 (1), (2), (4) or (7);
3. Pedestrians in a procession or the leader thereof, who have violated Article 9 (1) or the measures taken by police officers pursuant to paragraph (3) of the same Article;
4. Anyone who has performed any prohibited act on a road, in violation of Article 68 (3).
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 158 (Concurrent Sentence of Punishment)
Anyone who has committed any offense provided for in this Chapter may be concurrently sentenced to a fine, a minor fine, or misdemeanor imprisonment, depending on the extenuating circumstances.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 158-2 (Reduction or Exemption of Punishment)
Where the driver of an emergency motor vehicle (limited to motor vehicles referred to in subparagraph 22 (a) through (c) of Article 2 and motor vehicles for police prescribed by Presidential Decree) causes a traffic accident in the course of operating it for its own emergency purpose, the punishment provided for in Article 151 hereof or Article 3 (1) of the Act on Special Cases concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents may be reduced or exempted.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016]
 Article 159 (Joint Penalty Provisions)
Where the representative of a corporation, or an agent or employee of, or other persons employed by, a corporation or an individual commits any violations described in Articles 148, 148-2, 149 through 157 in connection with the business affairs of the corporation or the individual, the corporation or individual shall, in addition to punishing the violators accordingly, be subject to a fine or minor fine prescribed in the relevant Article: Provided, That this shall not apply to cases where such corporation or individual has not been negligent in giving due attention and supervision concerning the relevant business affairs to prevent such violations.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 160 (Administrative Fines)
(1) Any of the following persons shall be punished by an administrative fine not exceeding five million won: <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
1. Anyone who has failed to report the suspension or discontinuation of the operation of a traffic safety educational institution, in violation of Article 78;
2. Anyone who has failed to post the personal information of instructors and curriculums, in violation of Article 109 (2);
3. Anyone who has failed to post tuition fees, etc., in violation of Article 110 (2), or has received tuition fees in excess of the posted tuition fees, etc., in violation of paragraph (3) of the same Article;
4. Anyone who has failed to take measures necessary to protect students, including the refund of tuition fees, etc., in violation of Article 111;
5. Anyone who has failed to report the suspension or closure of a driving school or a specialized driving school, in violation of Article 112;
6. Anyone who has removed signboards or signs provided for in Article 115 (1), has refused, impeded, or evaded the installation of facilities or the affix of signboards or signs, or has removed installed facilities or affixed signboards or signs without permission therefor;
7. An operator who has operated a school bus for children without filing a report under Article 52 (1).
(2) Any of the following persons shall be punished by an administrative fine not exceeding 200,000 won: <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Any driver of a motor vehicle or tram who has violated Article 49 (1) (only applicable to subparagraphs 1 and 3 of the same paragraph);
2. Any driver who has failed to require all passengers to fasten their seat belts, in violation of Article 50 (1);
3. Any driver who has failed to have all passengers wear their safety harnesses, in violation of Article 50 (3);
4. Any operator of a school bus for children who has failed to keep a certificate of report in the school bus for children, in violation of Article 52 (2);
4-2. Any driver who has failed to make children or infants aboard the school bus for children fasten their seat belts, in violation of Article 53 (2);
4-3. Any person who has failed to receive safety education regarding school buses for children, in violation of Article 53-3 (1);
4-4. Any operator of a school bus for children who has made a person who did not receive safety education regarding school buses for children drive a school bus for children, in violation of Article 53-3 (3);
5. Any driver who has violated matters to be observed on the expressway, etc. pursuant to Article 67 (2);
6. Any person who has failed to receive education regarding the safe operation, etc. of emergency motor vehicles, in violation of Article 73 (4);
7. Any person who has failed to have his/her driver's license renewed during his/her driver's license renewal period, in violation of Article 87 (1);
8. Any person who has failed to receive a regular or occasional aptitude test, in violation of Article 87 (2) or 88 (1).
(3) Where it is proved by any photograph, videotape, or visual recorder that a motor vehicle or tram has violated Article 5, 13 (1) or (3), 14 (2), 15 (3) (including where the provisions are applied mutatis mutandis in Article 61 (2)), 17 (3), 23, 25 (1), (2), or (5), 27 (1), 29 (4) or (5), 32 through 34, 39 (4), or 60 (1), and such motor vehicle or tram falls under any of the following cases, the employer, etc. provided for in Article 56 (1) shall be punished by an administrative fine not exceeding 200,000 won: <Amended by Act No. 11780, May 22, 2013; Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Where it is impracticable to issue a written notice provided for in Article 143 (1) because the driver who has performed the violation cannot be identified (limited to where he/she violates Article 15 (3), 29 (4) or (5), 32, 33, or 34);
2. Where it is impracticable to take a disposition to serve a notice pursuant to Article 163.
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), in any of the following cases, no disposition shall be taken to impose an administrative fine: <Amended by Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Where the relevant motor vehicle or tram has been stolen or where other inevitable circumstances exist;
2. Where a driver is punished pursuant to Article 156 for the relevant violation (including where the driver is subject to a disposition to serve a notice for payment of a penalty pursuant to Article 163);
3. Where a driver who has committed a violation is identified as a result of submitting an opinion under Article 16 (2) of the Act on the Regulation of Violations of Public Order or raising an objection under Article 20 (1) of the same Act;
4. Where it is clear that a driver has rented a motor vehicle only, which is a lent motor vehicle by a motor vehicle rental business operator under the Passenger Transport Service Act or an equipment rental business operator under the Specialized Credit Financial Business Act.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 161 (Imposition, Collection, etc. of Administrative Fines)
(1) Administrative fines provided for in Article 160 (1) through (3) shall be imposed and collected by the following persons, as prescribed by Presidential Decree: <Amended by Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014; Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016; Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
1. Administrative fines provided for in Article 160 (1) through (3) (excluding where the traffic of exclusive lanes provided for in Article 15 (3), the stopping or parking of motor vehicles provided for in Articles 32 through 34, safety education regarding school buses for children provided for in Article 53-3 (1), or obligation of operators of school buses for children provided for in Article 53-3 (3) is violated): The commissioner of a district police agency;
2. Administrative fines provided for in Article 160 (1) (limited to where Article 52 (1) is violated), (2) (limited to where any of Articles 49 (1) 1 and 3, 50 (1) and (3), 52 (2), 53 (2), and 53-3 (1) and (3) is violated), or (3) (limited to where any of Articles 5, 13 (3), 15 (3), 17 (3), 29 (4) and (5), and 32 through 34 is violated): Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Governor;
3. Administrative fines provided for in Article 160 (2) 4-3 and 4-4, and (3) (limited to where any of Articles 15 (3), 29 (4) and (5), and 32 through 34 is violated): Mayors, etc.;
4. Administrative fines provided for in Article 160 (2) 4-3 or 4-4: The superintendent of an office of education.
(2) The commissioner of a district police agency may partially entrust affairs related to the collection of administrative fines under this Act, to the Korea Asset Management Corporation established under the Act on the Efficient Disposal of Non-Performing Assets, etc. of Financial Companies and the Establishment of Korea Asset Management Corporation, as prescribed by Presidential Decree. <Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 161-2 (Method, etc. of Paying Administrative Fines)
(1) Where the amount of an administrative fine to be paid is less than the amount prescribed by Presidential Decree, it may be paid by credit card, debit card, etc. (hereinafter referred to as "credit card, etc."), through an institution receiving administrative fines by agent prescribed by Presidential Decree. In such cases, an "institution receiving administrative fines by agent" means an institution conducting settlement by credit card, etc., by making use of an information and communications network, and designated as an institution receiving administrative fines by agent, as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) Where an administrative fine is paid by credit card, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1), the date of approval by an institution receiving administrative fines by agent shall be deemed the date of payment.
(3) An institution receiving administrative fines by agent may receive fees from payers in exchange for services receiving administrative fines by proxy by credit card, etc., as prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(4) Matters necessary for designation and operation of institutions receiving administrative fines by agent and fees for receiving by agent, etc, shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 161-3 (Formulation and Implementation of Plans for Operating Information System for Receiving Administrative Fines and Penalties)
In order to enable anyone to verify the details of administrative fines and penalties conveniently and to make electronic payment (referring to the payment made through means linked with the Internet, telephone communications equipment, or automatic teller machines), the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may formulate and implement a plan for operating an information system for receiving administrative fines and penalties, which includes the following:
1. Linkage between information and communications networks of institutions receiving administrative fines and penalties by agent and the integrated processing system for receiving administrative fines and penalties;
2. Realtime processing of payment of administrative fines and penalties and operation of the integrated processing system for receiving administrative fines and penalties;
3. Other matters necessary for formulating and implementing plans for operating such information system prescribed by Presidential Decree.
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016]
CHAPTER XIV SPECIAL PROVISIONS ON TREATMENT OF VIOLATION OF REGULATIONS
 Article 162 (General Provisions)
(1) "Violation of regulations" in this Chapter means the act of violation falling under any subparagraph of Article 156 or any subparagraph of Article 157. The specific scope shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree.
(2) "Violator" in this Chapter means a person who commits a violation and falls under any of the following subparagraphs:
1. A driver who fails to produce his/her driver's license, etc. or a certificate in lieu thereof, or to answer a question of a police officer about his/her identity and the confirmation of his/her driver's license pursuant to Article 92 (1) at the time he/she commits a violation;
2. Anyone who causes any traffic accident by violating regulations: Provided, That anyone who is not subject to punishment for negligence in the conduct of business resulting in injury or death or gross negligence resulting in injury or death as provided for in Articles 3 (2) and 4 of the Act on Special Cases concerning the Settlement of Traffic Accidents, or anyone who is exempted from the punishment provided for in Article 151 of this Act, shall be excluded.
(3) "Penalty" in this Chapter means the amount that a violator must pay to the National Treasury or the depository of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province in compliance with a notification disposition provided for in Article 163 and the amount of penalties shall be prescribed by Presidential Decree according to nature of the violation and the type of motor vehicle, etc. involved.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 163 (Notification Disposition)
(1) With respect to anyone deemed a violator, the chief of a police station or the Governor of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (in cases of the Governor of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, the act of violation provided for in Articles 15 (3), 39 (6), 60, 62, 64 through 66, 73 (2) 2 through 4, and 95 (1) which are applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to Articles 6 (1) and (2), and 61 (2) shall be excluded) may notify him/her of the payment of his/her penalty amount in the penalty payment notification clearly indicating the grounds for imposition of such penalty: Provided, That the same shall not apply to any of the following persons: <Amended by Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014; Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
1. Anyone whose name or domicile is unidentified;
2. Anyone who is likely to abscond;
3. Anyone who refuses to receive a penalty payment notification.
(2) Where the Governor of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province takes a disposition to serve the notification pursuant to paragraph (1), he/she shall notify the chief of the relevant police station thereof.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 164 (Payment of Penalty)
(1) Anyone who receives a notice for the payment of a penalty pursuant to Article 163 shall pay such penalty to the national treasury bank or its branch office or agency, or a post office designated by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency or any financial company, etc. or its branch office designated by the Governor of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province within 10 days from the date on which he/she receives a penalty payment notification: Provided, That when he/she is unable to pay the penalty within the period due to natural disaster or inevitable reasons, he/she shall pay the penalty within 5 days from the date on which such inevitable reasons cease to exist.
(2) Anyone who fails to pay the penalty within the payment period referred to in paragraph (1) shall pay the amount of the penalty in addition to 20/100 of the amount of penalty of which he/she is notified within 20 days from the date following the date on which the payment period expires.
(3) No one who pays a penalty pursuant to the provisons of paragraph (1) or (2) shall be punished any further again for the selfsame offense.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 164-2 (Methods, etc. for Paying Penalties)
Article 161-2 shall apply mutatis mutandis to methods for paying penalties. In such cases, "administrative fines" shall be construed as "penalties."
[This Article Newly Inserted by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016]
 Article 165 (Treatment of Persons who Fail to Implement Notification Disposition)
(1) The chief of a police station or Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Governor shall file a claim for summary judgment against any of the following persons, without delay: Provided, That the same shall not apply to anyone who falls under subparagraph 2 and pays the penalty that is added by 50/100 of the amount of the penalty notified before the claim for such summary judgment is filed: <Amended by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
1. Anyone who falls under any subparagraph of Article 163 (1);
2. Anyone who fails to pay a penalty by the payment deadline provided for in Article 164 (2).
(2) When any dependent for whom summary judgment is claimed pursuant to paragraph (1) 2 pays a penalty in addition to 50/100 of the amount of notified penalty and submits evidentiary documents before the summary judgment is granted, the chief of the relevant police station or Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Governor shall withdraw his/her claim for the summary judgment. <Amended by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
(3) No one who pays a penalty pursuant to the proviso to paragraph (1) or paragraph (2) shall be punished any further for the selfsame offense.
(4) Deleted. <by Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
 Article 166 (Prohibition on Abuse of Official Authority)
In taking the disposition for notification pursuant to this Chapter, all police officers in charge of traffic crackdown shall be prohibited from abusing their official authority in deviating from their original objectives without permission therefor.
[This Article Wholly Amended by Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011]
ADDENDA
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force from the date on which one year elapses after its promulgation.
Article 2 (Precedent for Concerning Special Traffic Safety Education)
The amended provisions of Article 73 (2) 3 shall apply, commencing with the first novice driver who is subject to a disposition to suspend the effect of his/her driver's license after this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Precedent for Application Concerning Prohibition on Driving Motor Vehicle while Intoxicated)
The amended provisions of Article 82 (2) 5 and 93 (1) 2 shall apply, commencing with the first violation that is committed after June 30, 2001, being the date on which the Road Traffic Act amended by Act No. 6392 entered into force. In such cases, the first violation committed or is committed after June 30, 2001 shall be deemed the first violation.
Article 4 (Transitional Measures Concerning Previous Drivers' Licenses, etc.)
The act that is performed by any administrative agency and any act is performed on any administrative agency pursuant to the previous provisions at the time of this Act enters into force shall be deemed an act performed by an administrative agency and an act performed on an administrative agency pursuant to this Act.
Article 5 (Transitional Measures Concerning Road Traffic Safety Authority)
The Road Traffic Safety Authority established pursuant to the previous provisions at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed the Road Traffic Safety Authority established pursuant to this Act.
Article 6 (Transitional Measure Concerning Refund of Contributions)
(1) An application may be filed for the refund of contributions that have already been made to the Road Traffic Safety Authority pursuant to the previous provisions of Article 92-2 prior to the entering into force of the Road Traffic Act, Act No. 6565, within 5 years from January 1, 2002, being the date on which the Road Traffic Act amended by Act No. 6565 enters into force. In such cases, with respect to any contribution for which no application is filed for the refund thereof during the application period, the claim for refund thereof shall be extinguished on the grounds of failure to meet the deadline.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall apply to the adjusted amount as a result of the revocation of any driver's license and the cancellation of a motor vehicle registration prior to the entering into force of the Road Traffic Act, Act No. 6555, and the adjusted amount as a result of the lowering of the contributions since January 1, 1999.
Article 7 (Transitional Measures Concerning Penalty Provisions or Administrative Fines)
The application of the penalty provisions or an administrative fine to the act that is performed prior to this Act entering into force shall be governed by the previous provisions.
Article 8 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 7666, Aug. 4, 2005>
(1) (Enforcement Date) This Act shall enter into force beginning on June 1, 2006.
(2) (Applicability to Measures Necessary to Shorten Work Period, etc.) The amended provisions of Article 69 (2) shall apply, starting with the road work that is first done after this Act enters into force.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 7936, Apr. 28, 2006>
This Act shall enter into force on June 1, 2006: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 12-2, 83 (4) 2 and 110 (4) shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 7969, Jul. 19, 2006>
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 8736, Dec. 21, 2007>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability to Permission, etc. for Occupation and Use of Road)
The amended provisions of Article 70 shall apply beginning with the permission for occupation and use of road, and prohibition or restriction on traffic that are conducted for the first time after this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Change of Authority's Title)
(1) The Road Traffic Safety Authority at the time when this Act enters into force shall be deemed as the Road Traffic Authority under this Act. In such cases, the Road Traffic Authority shall obtain authorization of the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency after amending its Articles of association according to the amended provisions of this Act within three months from the date this Act enters into force.
(2) The president, directors, auditor and employees of the Road Traffic Safety Authority at the time when this Act enters into force shall be deemed as having been appointed as the president, directors, auditor and employees of the Road Traffic Authority under this Act. In such cases, the term of office of the executive officers shall be the remaining term of office under the previous provisions.
(3) All the property, rights and liabilities that belonged to the Road Traffic Safety Authority at the time when this Act enters into force shall be succeeded by the Road Traffic Authority.
(4) The book value of the property as of the day before the day when the establishment of foundation is registered shall be the value of the property to be succeeded by the Road Traffic Safety Authority as provided for in paragraph (3).
Article 4 (Transitional Measures concerning Application of Penalty Provisions)
Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 152-2, the previous provisions shall apply to an act performed before this Act enters into force.
ADDENDA <Act No. 8845, Jan. 17, 2008>
(1) (Enforcement Date) This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
(2) (Applicability to Traffic Safety Education) The amended provisions of Articles 73 (1) and 83 (4) 1 shall apply beginning with the application for a test under Article 83 (1) 2 and 3 that is made after this Act enters into force.
ADDENDA <Act No. 8852, Feb. 29, 2008>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 8976, Mar. 21, 2008>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 10 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 9115, Jun. 13, 2008>
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 9580, Apr. 1, 2009>
(1) (Enforcement Date) This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provision of Article 160 (4) 4 shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation.
(2) (Transitional Measures concerning Penalty Provisions) The previous provisons shall apply to the penalty provisions on any acts done before this Act enters into force.
(3) (Transitional Measures concerning Imposition of Administrative Fines) The previous provisions shall apply to administrative fines imposed or to be imposed pursuant to the previous provisions as at the time this Act enters into force.
ADDENDA <Act No. 9845, Dec. 29, 2009>
(1) (Enforcement Date) This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
(2) (Transitional Measures concerning Penalty Provisions) The previous provisons shall apply to the penalty provisions on any acts done before this Act enters into force.
ADDENDA <Act No. 9932, Jan. 18, 2010>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force two months after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 5 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 10382, Jul. 23, 2010>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on January 1, 2011: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 3, 4-2, 8, 44, 73 (1), 126, 127, 128, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138-2, 144, 148-2, 157, 159, and 161 (2) through (4), shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation; the amended provisions of Articles 2 (excluding subparagraph 24), 35, 80, 82 and 83 (4), shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation; and the amended provisions of subparagraph 24 of Article 2, Articles 12, 12-2, 37, 46, 46-2, 49, 54, 73 (2), 79, 92, 93, 95, 113, 129-3, 150, 152-2, 153, 155, 156, 160 (2), 161 (1), 161-2, 162, and 163, shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability to Disqualified Period for Acquisition of Driver's License)
(1) The amended provisions of Article 82 (2) 1 shall also apply to any person in the disqualification period for the acquisition of a driver's license because he/she has violated Article 43 or 96 (3) because of his/her driving during the period the validity of his/her driver's license has been suspended or a person whose driver's license is in progress of cancellation before this Act enters into force.
(2) The amended provisions of Article 82 (2) 1-2 shall begin to apply from the first offense committed after this Act enters into force. In such cases, an offense committed first after this Act enters into force shall be deemed such first offense.
Article 3 (Applicability to Execution of Driver's License Test)
The amended provisions of Article 83 (4) shall also apply to any person who has applied for a driver's license test before this Act enters into force.
Article 4 (Succession to Rights and Duties following Change of Driver's License Test Institution)
Any activity done by, or in relation to a responsible administrative agency administering driver's licenses or a driver's license test institution under its control (hereinafter referred to as "driver's license test administrative organization") pursuant to the previous provisions as at the time this Act enters into force, shall be deemed any activity done by, or in relation to the Authority.
Article 5 (Secondment of Public Officials)
(1) Where the Authority requests, the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency may second some of those who maintain their status as public official as at the time this Act enters into force to the Authority within the extent for less than one year after this Act enters into force: Provided, That where there are special circumstances for the smooth execution of driver's license tests of the Authority, he/she may extend the period of secondment at the request of the Authority in consultation with the Minister of Security and Public Administration.
(2) The direction and supervision of service of public officials seconded to the Authority pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be conducted by the president of the Authority, and the personnel management on them, such as the evaluation of service record, promotion, transference and appointment, disciplinary action, etc. shall be conducted by the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency.
(3) Where the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency requests for the personnel management of public officials dispatched to the Authority pursuant to paragraph (1), the president of the Authority shall report matters related to service on the public officials seconded to the Commissioner General of the National Police Agency.
Article 6 (Special Cases on Appointment of Employees of Road Traffic Authority)
(1) The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency shall classify and determine those whose status will be changed to employees of the Authority as at the same time this Act enters into force among public officials belonging to a driver's license test administrative organization as at the time this Act enters into force, those who intend to maintain their status as a public official after the end of the period of secondment pursuant to Article 5 (1) of the Addenda and those whose status will be changed to employees of the Authority after the end of the period of secondment, respectively, and take measures for those whose status will be changed to employees of the Authority after the end of the period of secondment so that the authority may appoint them as employees.
(2) Any person whose status is changed to an employee of the Authority pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be appointed as an employee of the Authority.
(3) Where any person is appointed as an employee of the Authority pursuant to paragraph (2), he/she shall be deemed to have retired from public service.
(4) The age limit of any person who was a public official and is appointed as an employee of the Authority pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be based on the age limit under the State Public Officials Act which applies to his/her rank as at the time he/she retires from public service: Provided, That this shall not apply where the age limit of the Authority is longer than that under the State Public Officials Act.
Article 7 (Special Cases on Application of the Public Officials Pension Act to Persons who Retired from the National Police Agency and are Appointed as Employees of the Authority)
(1) Where any person who has served (including a person temporary retired from office) as a public official belonging to a driver's license test administrative organization before this Act enters into force retires from public service and is appointed as an employee of the Authority pursuant to Article 6 (2) of the Addenda, when any person whose period of service under the Public Officials Pension Act (hereafter in this Article, referred to as the "Pension Act") is less than the period of the minimum service prescribed by Article 46 (1) applies for application of the Pension Act to the Government Employees Pension Service (hereafter in this Article, referred to as the "Pension Service") established pursuant to Article 4 of the Pension Act within two months from the date he/she is appointed as an employee of the Authority, he/she shall be deemed a public official pursuant to Article 3 (1) 1 of the Pension Act until the period of his/her service as a public official referred to in paragraph (2), and shall be paid a retirement benefit, bereaved family's benefit (excluding bereaved family's compensation) and retirement allowance only among long-term benefits pursuant to Article 42 of the Pension Act. <Amended by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
(2) An employee of the Authority (hereafter in this Article, referred to as "employee subject to application of the Pension Act") deemed a public official pursuant to Article 3 (1) 1 of the Pension Act because he/she applies for the application of the Pension Act pursuant to paragraph (1), shall be deemed to have retired from public service on the last day of the month in which the period of his/her service under the Pension Act reaches 20 years: Provided, That where he/she falls under any of the following cases before his/her period of service reaches 20 years, he/she shall be deemed to have served until the day prescribed in the following subparagraphs: <Amended by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
1. Where an employee subject to application of the Pension Act with a period of service of at least ten years files an application for exclusion from application with the Authority: The day before the filing date of the application;
2. Where he/she retires from the Authority: The day before the date of retirement;
3. Where he/she dies during his/her service in the Authority: The date of his/her death.
(3) The amount of basic monthly income of an employee subject to the application of the Pension Act pursuant to Article 3 (1) 5 of the Pension Act shall be the amount equivalent to the amount of basic monthly income calculated according to the salary class determined considering he/she has been continuously promoted from the rank and salary class of a public official on the day before he/she is appointed as an employee of the Authority: Provided, That the amount of basic monthly income of an employee subject to application of the Pension Act who was a public official having received an annual salary shall be determined separately by the Minister of Security and Public Administration.
(4) With regard to an employee subject to the application of the Pension Act, the president of the Authority shall be deemed the head of an institution pursuant to Article 3 (1) 7 of the Pension Act, and a person liable for withholding under the Income tax Act as an employee of the Authority shall be deemed a person liable for withholding from contributions pursuant to Article 3 (1) 8 of the Pension Act.
(5) Where an employee subject to application of the Pension Act, whose period of service under paragraph (1) or (2) is at least ten years, falls under Article 46 (1) of the Pension Act, he/she shall be paid retirement pension benefits from then on: Provided, That if he/she falls under Article 7 of the Addenda to the partially amended Public Officials Pension Act (Act No. 13387), he/she shall be paid retirement pension benefits from then on. <Amended by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
(6) Deleted. <by Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
(7) In applying Article 64 of the Pension Act to an employee subject to the application of the Pension Act, "reason during the service" in paragraph (1) 1 and the former part of paragraph (2) of the same Article shall be construed as "reason during the service (including a reason during the period legally deemed a public official)"; "where he/she has been dismissed by impeachment or disciplinary action" in paragraph (1) 2 of the same Article shall be construed as "where he/she is dismissed from the Authority by disciplinary action by reason during the period legally deemed a public official"; and "where he/she is dismissed in disgrace for accepting valuables and entertainment, or the embezzlement and misappropriation of public money" in paragraph (1) 3 of the same Article shall be construed as "where he/she is dismissed in disgrace for accepting valuables and entertainment, or the embezzlement and misappropriation of public money in the Authority by reason during the period legally deemed a public official."
(8) Expenses incurred in payment of a retirement allowance to an employee subject to the application of the Pension Act shall be borne and managed by the Authority, notwithstanding Article 65 (3) of the Pension Act: Provided, That the amount equivalent to a retirement allowance to be paid when an employee subject to application of the Pension Act retires from the service as a public official belonging to a driver's license test administrative organization pursuant to Article 6 (3) of the Addenda shall be transferred to the Authority from the Pension Service after deducting the principal and interest unrepaid pursuant to subparagraphs 5 and 6 of Article 31-2 when he/she is appointed as an employee of the Authority.
(9) A charge for pension and compensation pursuant to Article 69 (1) of the Pension Act on an employee subject to the application of the Pension Act shall be borne by the Authority.
(10) An employee subject to the application of the Pension Act shall be excluded from those subject to subscription of national pension pursuant to Article 6 of the National Pension Act until the period he/she is deemed a public official pursuant to paragraph (1).
(11) The period an employee subject to application of the Pension Act is deemed a public official pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be excluded from the number of years of continuous service for the calculation of a retirement allowance pursuant to Article 34 of the Labor Standards Act.
(12) The Pension Act shall apply to matters not specifically prescribed in this Article concerning the calculation and payment of a retirement benefit, bereaved family's benefit (excluding bereaved family's compensation) and retirement allowance and the collection of the expenses, etc.
Article 8 (Transitional Measures concerning Special Accounts of Responsible Administrative Agency)
The State property and goods occupied, used or administered by a driver's license test administrative organization which become vested in special accounts of a responsible administrative agency (account of automobile driver's license) pursuant to Article 29-2 of the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Responsible Administrative Agencies as at the time this Act enters into force shall be restored to general accounts.
Article 9 (Transitional Measures concerning Penalty Provisions)
The previous provisions shall apply to penalty provisions on any offense committed before this Act enters into force.
ADDENDA <Act No. 10790, Jun. 8, 2011>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability concerning Grounds for Disqualification for Drivers' Licenses)
The amended provisions of Article 82 (2) 1, 6 and (7) concerning the violation under Article 46 shall apply, commencing with the first violation that is committed after this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Exemption of Driver's License Test)
Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 84 (1) 5, any person whose driver's license has been revoked since he/she failed to renew his/her driver's license before this Act enters into force shall be exempted from taking a part of the driver's license test pursuant to the previous provisions.
Article 4 (Transitional Measures concerning Renewal Period for Driver's License and Period for Regular Aptitude Test)
Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 87 (1) and (2), the previous provisions shall apply to a person who has obtained a driver's license before this Act enters into force should first renew his/her driver's license or take a regular aptitude test after this Act enters into force.
Article 5 (Transitional Measures concerning Penalty Provisions or Administrative Fines)
The previous provisions shall apply to the penalty provisions or administrative fines on any act that is committed before this Act enters into force.
Article 6 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11298, Feb. 10, 2012>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on July 1, 2013.
Articles 2 and 3 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11402, Mar. 21, 2012>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Transitional Measures)
The National Best Driver Association, an incorporated association established under Article 32 of the Civil Act at the time this Act enters into force, shall be deemed the Exemplary Drivers Association established under this Act.
ADDENDA <Act No. 11690, Mar. 23, 2013>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
(1) This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
(2) Omitted.
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 11780, May 22, 2013>
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 12045, Aug. 13, 2013>
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12248, Jan. 14, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 25 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12343, Jan. 28, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Article 12 (1) 4 shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation and the amended provisions of Article 13 (6) three months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Time Limit for Application of Obligations of Drivers of School Buses for Children on which No Guardian is Aboard)
The amended provisions for Article 53-2 shall apply for two years from the date on which this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Applicability to Duties of Drivers, Operators, etc. of School Buses for Children)
With respect to school buses with the prescribed seating capacity of not more than 15 persons which are operated by private teaching institutes under the Act on the Establishment and Operation of Private Teaching Institutes and Extracurricular Lessons and sports facilities under the Installation and Utilization of Sports Facilities Act, the amended provisions of Article 53 (3) shall apply from the date on which two years elapse after this Act enters into force.
Article 4 (Applicability to Provision of Information, etc. on Violations Committed by School Buses for Children)
The provision of information, etc. on violations committed by school buses for children under the amended provisions of Article 53-4 shall apply to violations committed after this Act enters into force.
Article 5 (Transitional Measures concerning School Buses for Children Formerly Reported)
School buses for children on which reports have been filed under the previous provisions as at the time this Act enters into force shall be deemed school buses for children reported under the amended provisions of Article 52.
Article 6 (Transitional Measures concerning Unreported Motor Vehicles Used to Transport Children to Schools)
A person who operates a motor vehicle used to transport children to school as at the time this Act enters into force but has not reported it as a school bus for children shall file a report in accordance with the amended provisions of Article 52 within six months after this Act enters into force.
Article 7 (Transitional Measures concerning Education on Safe Operation, etc. of School Buses for Children)
(1) Persons who have received initial safety education under the previous provisions before this Act enters into force shall be deemed to have received initial safety education under the amended provisions of Article 53-3 (2).
(2) Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 53-3 (2), persons who are operating or driving school buses for children as at the time this Act enters into force but have failed to receive safety education which should have been received as at the time of commencement of such operation or driving service, shall receive initial safety education within three months after this Act enters into force.
(3) Persons who have received regular safety education (former safety re-education) for two years preceding the enforcement date of this Act under the previous provisions shall be deemed received regular safety education under the amended provisions of Article 53-3 (2).
(4) Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 53-3 (2), persons who are operating or driving school buses for children as at the time this Act enters into force but have failed for two years preceding the enforcement date of this Act to receive safety education (former safety re-education) which should have been received under the previous provisions, shall receive initial safety education within six months after this Act enters into force.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12345, Jan. 28, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force three months after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Article 2 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12844, Nov. 19, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of an Act, promulgated before this Act enters into force, but the date they are to enter into force, has not yet arrived, among the Acts amended pursuant to Article 6 of the Addenda, shall enter into force on the date such respective Act enters into force.
Articles 2 through 7 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 12917, Dec. 30, 2014>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That of the partially amended Road Traffic Act (Act No. 12343), the amended provisions of Articles 53 (2) and (3), 53-2, and 160 (2) shall enter into force on January 29, 2015, and the amended provisions of Articles 14 (4) and (5), 39 (2) through (6), 44 (2), 73 (1) 6 and 7, 85 (5), 144 (1) 3 and 4 and (2) 5 and 6, subparagraphs 1 and 5 of Article 156, and Article 163 (1) shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability to Special Traffic Safety Education)
The amended provisions of Article 73 (2) 1 shall also apply to a person who has been subject to a disposition of revocation of his/her driver's license before this Act enters into force on any ground prescribed in Article 93 (1) 9 or 20.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13425, Jul. 24, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13426, Jul. 24, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation. (Proviso Omitted.)
Articles 2 through 39 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 13458, Aug. 11, 2015>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Articles 46-3, 73 (2), 93 (1), 151-2, 153, and 156 shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability to Disqualification Periods for Obtaining Driver's License)
The disqualification periods for obtaining a driver's license under the amended provisions of the proviso to Article 82 (2) and subparagraphs 5 through 7 of the same paragraph shall begin to apply from the first violation committed after this Act enters into force: Provided, That the amended provisions of the proviso to Article 82 (2) and subparagraph 7 of the same paragraph shall also apply to a person on whom a procedure for administrative disposition is being taken or who is in the period of disqualification for obtaining a driver's license after this Act enters into force, due to a violation committed before this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Incompetent Persons, etc.)
Persons under adult guardianship referred to in the amended provisions of Article 102 (1) 1 and subparagraph 2 (a) of Article 105 shall be deemed to include persons in whose case the declaration of incompetency or quasi-incompetency is still in force under Article 2 of the Addenda to the partially amended Civil Act (Act No. 10429).
ADDENDA <Act No. 13829, Jan. 27, 2016>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Article 5-3, the main sentence of Article 93 (1), and Article 158-2 hereof, and the amended provisions of Article 7 of the Addenda to the partially amended Road Traffic Act (Act No. 10382), shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation; and the amended provisions of Article 161 (2), on January 1, 2017.
Article 2 (Applicability to Special Drivers' Licenses)
The amended provisions of Article 80 (2) shall begin to apply from the first driver's license test executed after this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Applicability to Revocation and Suspension of Drivers' Licenses)
The amended provisions of Article 93 (1) 10-2 shall begin to apply from the first offense committed after this Act enters into force.
Article 4 (Applicability to Adjustment of Special Cases on Application of the Public Officials Pension Act to Persons who Retired from the National Police Agency and are Appointed as Employees of the Authority after retiring from the National Police Agency)
The amended provisions of Article 7 of the Addenda to the partially amended Road Traffic Act (Act No. 10382) shall begin to apply from January 1, 2016.
Article 5 (Transitional Measures concerning Special Drivers' Licenses)
A person who holds a driver's license for trailers or wreckers, as at the time this Act enters into force, shall be deemed to hold a driver's license for large towing vehicles or recovery vehicles, respectively.
Article 6 Omitted.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 14266, May 29, 2016>
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 14356, Dec. 2, 2016>
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of Article 165 shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14617, Mar. 21, 2017>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14839, Jul. 26, 2017>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
(1) This Act shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation: Provided, That, among the Acts amended pursuant to Article 5 of the Addenda, the amendments to the Acts, which were promulgated before this Act enters into force but the enforcement dates of which have not arrived yet, shall enter into force on the enforcement dates of the respective Acts.
Articles 2 through 6 Omitted.
ADDENDA <Act No. 14911, Oct. 24, 2017>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the amended provisions of subparagraph 26 of Article 2, and Article 96 shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation.
Article 2 (Applicability to Mandatory Special Traffic Safety Education)
The amended provisions of Article 73 (2) shall apply, beginning with the first person issued with a disposition to revoke his/her driver’s license or suspend the effect of his/her driver’s license after this Act enters into force.
Article 3 (Transitional Measures concerning Persons who Drive Emergency Motor Vehicles)
Any person driving an emergency motor vehicle at the time this Act enters into force, who shall receive education regarding the safe operation, etc. of emergency motor vehicles pursuant to the amended provisions of Article 73 (4), shall receive such education within one year from the date this Act enters into force.
ADDENDUM <Act No. 15364, Feb. 9, 2018>
This Act shall enter into force six months after the date of its promulgation.
ADDENDA <Act No. 15530, Mar. 27, 2018>
Article 1 (Enforcement Date)
This Act shall enter into force one year after the date of its promulgation: Provided, That the following amended provisions shall enter into force on the dates classified as follows:
1. Articles 13-2 (4) 1, 49 (1) 4 and 6, and 139 (1) 11: The date of its promulgation (for matters concerning the introduction of trams in Article 49 (1) 6, one year after the date of its promulgation);
2. Articles 34-3, 44, 47, 48, 50 (1), (2), (4), and (8), 53, 67, 93 (1), 98-2, 148-2 (1), subparagraphs 1, 11, and 12 of Article 156, 160 (2) 2, 161 (1) 2, and Article 73 (1) 3-2 of the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 14911): Six months after the date of its promulgation (for matters concerning the introduction of trams in Articles 44, 47, 48, 148-2 (1), and subparagraph 1 of Article 156, one year after the date of its promulgation);
3. Article 140 of the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 14911): Apr. 25, 2018;
4. Article 87, and Article 73 (5) of the Road Traffic Act (Act No. 14911): Jan. 1, 2019.
Article 2 (Transitional Measures concerning Renewal of Drivers’ Licenses and Regular Aptitude Tests for Persons Aged 75 Years and Older)
Notwithstanding the amended provisions of Article 87 (1), the previous provisions shall apply to the period for which a person, who has obtained a driver’s license before the same amended provisions enter into force, should first renew or take a driver’s license or regular aptitude test after the same amended provisions enter into force.
Article 3 (Applicability to Restrictions on Issuance of International Drivers’ Licenses)
The amended provisions of Article 98-2 shall also apply where a person, who has a penalty or administrative fine imposed for a violation that he/she has committed before the same amended provisions enter into force, intends to be issued an international driver’s license.
Article 4 Omitted.