CRIMINAL ACT
전체선택
PART I GENERAL PROVISIONS
CHAPTER I LIMIT OF APPLICABILITY OF CRIMINAL CODE
Article 1 (Criminality and Punishability of Act)
Article 2 (Domestic Crimes)
Article 3 (Crimes by Koreans outside Korea)
Article 4 (Crimes by Aliens on Board Korean Vessel, etc. outside Korea)
Article 5 (Crimes by Aliens outside Korea)
Article 6 (Foreign Crimes against Republic of Korea and Korean National outside Korea)
Article 7 (Inclusion of Sentence Executed Abroad)
Article 8 (Application of General Provisions)
CHAPTER II CRIME
SECTION 1 Commission of Crime and Mitigation or Exemption of Sentence
Article 9 (Criminal Minors)
Article 10 (Persons with Mental Disorders)
Article 11 (Deaf-Mutes)
Article 12 (Action Compelled)
Article 13 (Criminal Intent)
Article 14 (Negligence)
Article 15 (Misunderstanding of Fact)
Article 16 (Misunderstanding of Law)
Article 17 (Causation)
Article 18 (Crime Committed through Omission)
Article 19 (Concurrence of Independent Act)
Article 20 (Justifiable Act)
Article 21 (Self-Defense)
Article 22 (Necessity)
Article 23 (Self-Help)
Article 24 (Consent of Victim)
SECTION 2 Criminal Attempts
Article 25 (Criminal Attempts)
Article 26 (Voluntarily Ceased Crime)
Article 27 (Impossible Crime)
Article 28 (Conspiracy and Preparation)
Article 29 (Punishment of Attempts)
SECTION 3 Complicity
Article 30 (Co-Principals)
Article 31 (Instigator)
Article 32 (Accessories)
Article 33 (Complicity and Status)
Article 34 (Principal through Innocent Human Agent and Aggravation of Punishment for Particular Instigation or Aiding and Abetting)
SECTION 4 Repeated Crime (Recidivism)
Article 35 (Repeated Crime)
Article 36 (Discovery of Repeated Crime after Imposition of Sentence)
SECTION 5 Concurrent Crimes
Article 37 (Concurrent Crimes)
Article 38 (Concurrent Crimes and Application of Punishment)
Article 39 (Concurrent Crimes not Adjudicated; Several Judgments and Concurrent Crimes; Execution of Punishment and Concurrent Crimes)
Article 40 (Compound Crimes)
CHAPTER III PUNISHMENT
SECTION 1 Kinds and Severity of Punishments
Article 41 (Kinds of Punishment)
Article 42 (Term of Imprisonment or Imprisonment without Prison Labor)
Article 43 (Imposition of Sentence, Deprivation of Qualifications and Suspension of Qualifications)
Article 44 (Suspension of Qualifications)
Article 45 (Fine)
Article 46 (Detention)
Article 47 (Minor Fine)
Article 48 (Confiscation and Additional Collection)
Article 49 (Additional Character of Confiscation)
Article 50 (Severity of Punishments)
SECTION 2 Determination of Punishment
Article 51 (General Principles for Determination of Punishment)
Article 52 (Self-Denunciation and Voluntary Confession)
Article 53 (Discretionary Mitigation)
Article 54 (Optional Penalty and Discretionary Mitigation)
Article 55 (Statutory Mitigation)
Article 56 (Order of Aggravation and Mitigation)
Article 57 (Inclusion of Number of Days of Confinement before Imposition of Sentence)
Article 58 (Public Announcement of Judgment)
SECTION 3 Suspension of Imposition of Sentence
Article 59 (Requisites for Suspension of Impositions of Sentence)
Article 59-2 (Probation)
Article 60 (Effect of Suspension of Imposition of Sentence)
Article 61 (Nullification of Suspension of Imposition of Sentence)
SECTION 4 Suspension of Execution of Sentence
Article 62 (Requisites for Suspension of Execution of Sentence)
Article 62 (Requisites for Suspension of Execution of Sentence)
Article 62-2 (Probation, Social Service or Order to Take Lectures)
Article 63 (Nullification of Suspension of Execution of Sentence)
Article 64 (Revocation of Suspension of Execution of Sentence)
Article 65 (Effect of Suspension of Execution of Sentence)
SECTION 5 Execution of Punishment
Article 66 (Death Penalty)
Article 67 (Imprisonment)
Article 68 (Imprisonment without Prison Labor and Detention)
Article 69 (Fine and Minor Fine)
Article 70 (Lockup at Workhouse)
Article 71 (Deduction of Number of Days of Lockup)
SECTION 6 Parole
Article 72 (Requisites for Parole)
Article 73 (Confinement before Imposition of Sentence and Parole)
Article 73-2 (Period of Parole, and Probation)
Article 74 (Nullification of Parole)
Article 75 (Revocation of Parole)
Article 76 (Effect of Parole)
SECTION 7 Prescription for Execution of Judgment of Guilt
Article 77 (Effect of Prescription)
Article 78 (Period of Prescription)
Article 79 (Suspension of Prescription)
Article 80 (Interruption of Prescription)
SECTION 8 Extinction of Punishment
Article 81 (Nullification of Punishment)
Article 82 (Restoration of Rights)
CHAPTER IV TERM
Article 83 (Computation of Period of Time)
Article 84 (Computation of Term of Punishment)
Article 85 (First Day of Execution of Punishments and Period of Prescription)
Article 86 (Release Day)
PART II INDIVIDUAL PROVISIONS
CHAPTER I CRIME CONCERNING INSURRECTION
Article 87 (Insurrection)
Article 88 (Homicide for Purpose of Insurrection)
Article 89 (Attempts)
Article 90 (Preparations, Conspiracies, Agitation, or Propaganda)
Article 91 (Definition of Subverting Constitution)
CHAPTER II CRIMES CONCERNING FOREIGN AGGRESSION
Article 92 (Inducement of Foreign Aggression)
Article 93 (Taking Side with Enemy)
Article 94 (Benefiting Enemy by Levying Soldiers)
Article 95 (Benefiting Enemy by Providing Equipment)
Article 96 (Benefiting Enemy by Destroying Equipment)
Article 97 (Benefiting Enemy by Delivering Goods)
Article 98 (Spy)
Article 99 (Benefiting Enemy by Other Methods)
Article 100 (Attempts)
Article 101 (Preparations, Conspiracies, Agitation, or Propaganda)
Article 102 (Quasi-Enemy Country)
Article 103 (Non-Performance of Munition Contract in Wartime)
Article 104 (Allied Power)
Article 104-2 Deleted.
CHAPTER III CRIMES CONCERNING THE NATIONAL FLAG
Article 105 (Profanation of National Flag or National Emblem)
Article 106 (Defamation of National Flag or National Emblem)
CHAPTER IV CRIMES CONCERNING FOREIGN RELATIONS
Article 107 (Assaults, etc. against Foreign Sovereign)
Article 108 (Assaults, etc. against Foreign Envoy)
Article 109 (Profanation of Foreign Flag or Foreign Emblem)
Article 110 (Consent of Victim)
Article 111 (Private War against Foreign Country)
Article 112 (Violations of Neutrality Orders)
Article 113 (Divulgence of Diplomatic Secrets)
CHAPTER V CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC PEACE
Article 114 (Organization of Criminal Groups, etc.)
Article 115 (Riot)
Article 116 (Failure of Dispersion of Masses)
Article 117 (Non Fulfillment of Contract of Public Demand in Wartime)
Article 118 (False Impersonation of Public Official)
CHAPTER VI CRIMES CONCERNING EXPLOSIVES
Article 119 (Use of Explosives)
Article 120 (Preparations, Conspiracies, and Instigation)
Article 121 (Manufacture, etc. of Explosives in Wartime)
CHAPTER VII CRIMES CONCERNING THE DUTIES OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS
Article 122 (Abandonment of Duties)
Article 123 (Abuse of Authority)
Article 124 (Unlawful Arrest and Unlawful Confinement)
Article 125 (Violence and Cruel Act)
Article 126 (Publication of Facts of Suspected Crime)
Article 127 (Divulgence of Official Secrets)
Article 128 (Obstruction of Election)
Article 129 (Acceptance of Bribe and Advance Acceptance)
Article 130 (Bribe to Third Person)
Article 131 (Improper Action after Acceptance of Bribe and Subsequent Bribery)
Article 132 (Acceptance of Bribe through Good Offices)
Article 133 (Offer, etc. of Bribe)
Article 134 (Confiscation and Subsequent Collection)
Article 135 (Aggravation of Punishment for Crimes in Course of Official Duty)
CHAPTER VIII CRIMES CONCERNING OBSTRUCTION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF OFFICIAL DUTIES
Article 136 (Obstruction of Performance of Official Duties)
Article 137 (Obstruction of Performance of Official Duties by Fraudulent Means)
Article 138 (Contempt of Court or National Assembly)
Article 139 (Obstruction of Official Duties for Vindication of Human Rights)
Article 140 (Rendering Null and Void Symbol of Official Secrecy)
Article 140-2 (Infringement on Effect of Compulsory Execution to Immovables)
Article 141 (Invalidity of Public Documents, etc. and Destruction of Public Goods)
Article 142 (Invalidity of Goods Kept in Public Custody)
Article 143 (Attempts)
Article 144 (Special Obstruction of Public Duty)
CHAPTER IX CRIMES OF ESCAPE AND HARBORING CRIMINALS
Article 145 (Escape and Violation of Summoning Order)
Article 146 (Special Escape)
Article 147 (Helping Escape)
Article 148 (Escape Caused by Prison Guard)
Article 149 (Attempts)
Article 150 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
Article 151 (Harboring Criminal and Special Exceptions to Relatives)
CHAPTER X CRIMES OF PERJURY AND DESTRUCTION OF EVIDENCE
Article 152 (Perjury, Malicious Perjury)
Article 153 (Confession, Self-Denunciation)
Article 154 (Fraudulent Expert Opinion, Interpretation, and Translation)
Article 155 (Destruction of Evidence, etc. and Special Exception to Relatives)
CHAPTER XI CRIMES OF FALSE ACCUSATION
Article 156 (False Accusation)
Article 157 (Confession, Self-Denunciation)
CHAPTER XII CRIMES CONCERNING DECEASED PERSONS
Article 158 (Disturbing Funeral Service, etc.)
Article 159 (Defiling Corpse, etc.)
Article 160 (Excavation of Grave)
Article 161 (Exploring Tombs, etc.)
Article 162 (Attempts)
Article 163 (Obstruction of Inquest over Unnatural Corpse)
CHAPTER XIII CRIMES OF ARSON AND FIRE CAUSED BY NEGLIGENCE
Article 164 (Setting Fire to Present Living Building, etc.)
Article 165 (Setting Fire to Public Structures, etc.)
Article 166 (Setting Fire to Other Structures, etc.)
Article 167 (Setting Fire to General Goods)
Article 168 (Spread of Fire)
Article 169 (Obstruction to Fire Fighting)
Article 170 (Fire Caused by Negligence)
Article 171 (Fire Caused by Occupational Negligence, Fire by Gross Negligence)
Article 172 (Burst of Explosive Substances)
Article 172-2 (Discharge of Gas, Electricity, etc.)
Article 173 (Obstruction to Supply of Gas, Electricity, etc.)
Article 173-2 (Burst, etc. of Explosive Substances by Negligence)
Article 174 (Attempts)
Article 175 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
Article 176 (Criminal's Property Which is Subject to Another Person's Right)
CHAPTER XIV CRIMES CONCERNING INUNDATION AND WATER UTILIZATION
Article 177 (Inundation of Present Living Building, etc. with Water)
Article 178 (Inundation to Public Structures, etc.)
Article 179 (Inundation to Other Structures)
Article 180 (Obstruction of Flood Control)
Article 181 (Inundation Caused by Negligence)
Article 182 (Attempts)
Article 183 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
Article 184 (Obstruction of Water Utilization)
CHAPTER XV CRIMES OF TRAFFIC OBSTRUCTION
Article 185 (General Obstruction of Traffic)
Article 186 (Obstruction of Train and Vessel Traffic)
Article 187 (Derailing Train, etc.)
Article 188 (Death or Injury caused by Obstruction of Traffic)
Article 189 (Negligence, Occupational Negligence, Gross Negligence)
Article 190 (Attempts)
Article 191 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
CHAPTER XVI CRIMES CONCERNING DRINKING WATER
Article 192 (Obstruction of Use of Drinking Water)
Article 193 (Obstruction of Use of Water Supply System)
Article 194 (Death or Injury caused by Mixing Drinking Water with Poison)
Article 195 (Interference with Water Supply System)
Article 196 (Attempts)
Article 197 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
CHAPTER XVII CRIMES CONCERNING OPIUM
Article 198 (Manufacture, etc. of Opium, etc.)
Article 199 (Manufacture, etc. of Opium Smoking Instrument)
Article 200 (Opium Importation by Customs Official)
Article 201 (Smoking Opium and Provision of Place)
Article 202 (Attempts)
Article 203 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 204 (Suspension of Qualifications and Imposition of Fine)
Article 205 (Possession of Opium, etc.)
Article 206 (Confiscation, Subsequent Collection)
CHAPTER XVIII CRIMES CONCERNING CURRENCY
Article 207 (Crimes of Counterfeiting Currency)
Article 208 (Acquisition of Counterfeited Currency)
Article 209 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications or of Fine)
Article 210 (Circulation of Currency known to be Counterfeited)
Article 211 (Manufacture of Articles Similar to Currency)
Article 212 (Attempts)
Article 213 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
CHAPTER XIX CRIMES CONCERNING VALUABLE SECURITIES AND POSTAGE AND REVENUE STAMPS
Article 214 (Counterfeiting Valuable Securities, etc.)
Article 215 (Drafting of Valuable Securities by Assuming False Capacity)
Article 216 (Drafting Untrue Valuable Securities)
Article 217 (Uttering Forged Valuable Securities)
Article 218 (Forgery of Revenue or Postage)
Article 219 (Acquisition of Forged Postage or Revenue Stamp)
Article 220 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications or of Fine)
Article 221 (Erasure of Postmark)
Article 222 (Manufacture, etc. of Articles Similar to Stamps, Postage, etc.)
Article 223 (Attempts)
Article 224 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
CHAPTER XX CRIMES CONCERNING DOCUMENTS
Article 225 (Counterfeit or Alteration of Official Document, etc.)
Article 226 (Drafting of Official Document by Assuming False Capacity)
Article 227 (Preparation, etc. of False Public Document)
Article 227-2 (Falsification or Alteration of Public Electromagnetic Records)
Article 228 (Untrue Entry in Officially Authenticated Original Deed)
Article 229 (Uttering of Falsified Public Document, etc.)
Article 230 (Unlawful Uttering of Official Document)
Article 231 (Counterfeit or Alteration of Private Document, etc.)
Article 232 (Drafting of Private Document by Assuming False Capacity)
Article 232-2 (Falsification or Alteration of Private Electromagnetic Records)
Article 233 (Preparation of False Medical Certificate, etc.)
Article 234 (Uttering of Falsified Private Document, etc.)
Article 235 (Attempts)
Article 236 (Unlawful Uttering of Private Document)
Article 237 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
Article 237-2 (Reproduced Documents, etc.)
CHAPTER XXI CRIMES CONCERNING SEALS
Article 238 (Counterfeit or Misappropriation of official Seal)
Article 239 (Counterfeit or Misappropriation of Private Seal, etc.)
Article 240 (Attempts)
CHAPTER XXII CRIMES CONCERNING SEXUAL MORALS
Article 241 Deleted.
Article 242 (Arranging for Prostitution)
Article 243 (Distribution, etc. of Obscene Pictures)
Article 244 (Manufacture, etc. of Obscene Pictures)
Article 245 (Public Indecency)
CHAPTER XXIII CRIMES CONCERNING GAMBLING AND LOTTERY TICKETS
Article 246 (Gambling and Habitual Gambling)
Article 247 (Setting up Places for Gambling, etc.)
Article 248 (Sale, etc. of Lottery Tickets)
Article 249 (Concurrent Imposition of Fines)
CHAPTER XXIV CRIMES OF HOMICIDE
Article 250 (Murder, Killing Ascendant)
Article 251 (Infanticide)
Article 252 (Murder upon Request or with Consent)
Article 253 (Murder upon Request through Fraudulent Means, etc.)
Article 254 (Attempts)
Article 255 (Preparations, Conspiracies)
Article 256 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
CHAPTER XXV CRIMES OF INFLICTING BODILY INJURY AND VIOLENCE
Article 257 (Inflicting Bodily Injury on Other or on Lineal Ascendant)
Article 258 (Aggravated Bodily Injury on Other or on Lineal Ascendant)
Article 258-2 (Special Bodily Injury on Another)
Article 259 (Death Resulting from Bodily Injury)
Article 260 (Crime of Violence)
Article 261 (Special Violence)
Article 262 (Death or Injury Resulting from Violence)
Article 263 (Simultaneous Crimes)
Article 264 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 265 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
CHAPTER XXVI CRIMES OF INFLICTING BODILY INJURY AND DEATH THROUGH NEGLIGENCE
Article 266 (Bodily Injury by Negligence)
Article 267 (Death by Negligence)
Article 268 (Death and Injury by Occupational or Gross Negligence)
CHAPTER XXVII THE CRIMES OF ABORTION
Article 269 (Abortion)
Article 270 (Abortion by Doctor, etc., Abortion without Consent)
CHAPTER XXVIII CRIMES OF ABANDONMENT AND MALTREATMENT
Article 271 (Abandonment of Lineal Ascendant)
Article 272 (Abandoning Baby)
Article 273 (Cruelty to Another and to Lineal Ascendant)
Article 274 (Hard Labor by Child)
Article 275 (Death or Injury Caused by Abandonment)
CHAPTER XXIX CRIMES OF FALSE ARREST AND ILLEGAL CONFINEMENT
Article 276 (False Arrest, Illegal Confinement, Those on Lineal Ascendant)
Article 277 (Aggravated False Arrest, Aggravated Illegal Confinement, Those on Lineal Ascendant)
Article 278 (Special False Arrest or Illegal Confinement)
Article 279 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 280 (Attempts)
Article 281 (Death or Injury caused by Arrest, Confinement, etc.)
Article 282 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
CHAPTER XXX CRIMES OF INTIMIDATION
Article 283 (Intimidation, Intimidation on Lineal Ascendant)
Article 284 (Special Intimidation)
Article 285 (Habitual Crime)
Article 286 (Attempts)
CHAPTER XXXI CRIMES OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
Article 287 (Kidnapping or Abduction of Minors)
Article 288 (Kidnapping, Abduction, etc. for Purpose of Indecent Acts, etc.)
Article 289 (Trafficking in Persons)
Article 290 (Inflicting or Causing Another's Bodily Injury while in Kidnapping, Abduction, Trafficking in Persons, Transportation, etc.)
Article 291 (Killing Another or Causing Death of Another while in Kidnapping, Abduction, Trafficking in Persons, Transportation, etc.)
Article 292 (Receiving, Harboring, etc. of Person Kidnapped, Abducted, Trafficked, or Transported)
Article 293 Deleted.
Article 294 (Attempts)
Article 295 (Concurrent Imposition of Fines)
Article 295-2 (Mitigation of Punishment)
Article 296 (Preparations or Conspiracies)
Article 296-2 (Universality)
CHAPTER XXXII CRIMES CONCERNING RAPE AND INFAMOUS CONDUCT
Article 297 (Rape)
Article 297-2 (Imitative Rape)
Article 298 (Indecent Act by Compulsion)
Article 299 (Quasi-Rape, Quasi-Indecent Act by Compulsion)
Article 300 (Attempts)
Article 301 (Inflicting or Causing Another's Bodily Injury by Rape, etc.)
Article 301-2 (Killing Another or Causing Death of Another by Rape, etc.)
Article 302 (Sexual Intercourse with Minor, etc.)
Article 303 (Sexual Intercourse by Abuse of Occupational Authority, etc.)
Article 304 Deleted.
Article 305 (Sexual Intercourse or Indecent Acts with Minor)
Article 305-2 (Habitual Offenders)
Article 306 Deleted.
CHAPTER XXXIII CRIMES AGAINST REPUTATION
Article 307 (Defamation)
Article 308 (Defamation of Dead Person)
Article 309 (Defamation through Printed Materials)
Article 310 (Justification)
Article 311 (Insult)
Article 312 (Complaint)
CHAPTER XXXIV CRIMES AGAINST CREDIT, BUSINESS AND AUCTION
Article 313 (Injuring Credit)
Article 314 (Interference with Business)
Article 315 (Interference with Auction or Bidding)
CHAPTER XXXV CRIMES OF VIOLATION OF SECRECY
Article 316 (Violation of Secrecy)
Article 317 (Occupational Disclosure of Other's Secrets)
Article 318 (Complaint)
CHAPTER XXXVI CRIMES OF INTRUSION UPON A HUMAN HABITATION
Article 319 (Intrusion upon Habitation, Refusal to Leave)
Article 320 (Special Intrusion upon Human Habitation)
Article 321 (Illegal Search of Human Habitation and Body)
Article 322 (Attempts)
CHAPTER XXXVII CRIMES OF OBSTRUCTING ANOTHER FROM EXERCISING HIS/HER RIGHT
Article 323 (Obstructing Another from Exercising One’s Right)
Article 324 (Coercion)
Article 324-2 (Coercion by Hostage)
Article 324-3 (Injury by Hostage)
Article 324-4 (Murder of Hostage, etc.)
Article 324-5 (Attempts)
Article 324-6 (Mitigation of Punishment)
Article 325 (Forcible or Quasi-Forcible Taking)
Article 326 (Aggravated Obstruction)
Article 327 (Evasion of Execution)
Article 328 (Crimes and Complaints among Relatives)
CHAPTER XXXVIII CRIMES OF LARCENY AND ROBBERY
Article 329 (Larceny)
Article 330 (Compound Larceny)
Article 331 (Special Larceny)
Article 331-2 (Unlawful Use of Automobile, etc.)
Article 332 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 333 (Robbery)
Article 334 (Special Robbery)
Article 335 (Quasi-Robbery)
Article 336 (Robbery by Hostage)
Article 337 (Bodily Injury resulting from Robbery)
Article 338 (Murder, etc. by Robbery)
Article 339 (Robbery and Rape)
Article 340 (Piracy)
Article 341 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 342 (Attempts)
Article 343 (Preparations or Conspiracies)
Article 344 (Crimes Among Relatives)
Article 345 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
Article 346 (Energy)
CHAPTER XXXIX CRIMES OF FRAUD AND EXTORTION
Article 347 (Fraud)
Article 347-2 (Fraud by Use of Computer, etc.)
Article 348 (Quasi-Fraud)
Article 348-2 (Unlawful Use of Facilities for Convenience)
Article 349 (Unjustifiable Profit)
Article 350 (Extortion)
Article 350-2 (Special Extortion)
Article 351 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 352 (Attempts)
Article 353 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
Article 354 (Crimes among Relatives, Energy)
CHAPTER XL EMBEZZLEMENT AND BREACH OF TRUST
Article 355 (Embezzlement and Breach of Trust)
Article 356 (Occupational Embezzlement, Occupational Breach of Trust)
Article 357 (Receiving or Giving Bribe by Breach of Trust)
Article 358 (Concurrent Imposition of Suspension of Qualifications)
Article 359 (Attempts)
Article 360 (Embezzlements of Lost Articles)
Article 361 (Crimes among Relatives, Energy)
CHAPTER XLI CRIMES CONCERNING STOLEN PROPERTY
Article 362 (Acquiring Stolen Property, Aiding, etc.)
Article 363 (Habitual Crimes)
Article 364 (Occupational Negligence, Gross Negligence)
Article 365 (Crimes among Relatives)
CHAPTER XLII DESTRUCTION
Article 366 (Destruction and Damage, etc. of Property)
Article 367 (Destruction of Structure for Public Use)
Article 368 (Aggravated Destruction and Damage)
Article 369 (Special Destruction and Damage)
Article 370 (Trespassing Boundary)
Article 371 (Attempts)
Article 372 (Energy)